WMA

Session: WMA

Direct Extraction of FET Circuit Models from Microwave and Baseband Large-Signal Measurements for Model-Based Microwave Power Amplifier Design

Chair:

Patrick Roblin, The Ohio State University

Co-Chair:

David E. Root, Keysight Technologies

Abstract:

Leveraged by the availability of nonlinear vector network analyzers (NVNA), the efficient extraction of circuit-based FET models including memory effects directly from large-signal microwave measurements is now possible and has been successfully demonstrated. There is now a comprehensive body of work published on this emerging topic. This workshop will bring together many of the world experts in this field to present the results already demonstrated by this new approach and outline the outstanding challenges remaining ahead. This workshop will start with a review of the progress in the field, and include tutorials on key extraction topics. The focus of this workshop is to report on advanced techniques for the extraction and validation of circuit-based device-models using large-signal microwave measurements with NVNAs. Model-based nonlinear embedding design technique that enables efficient power amplifier (PA) designs starting from a desired intrinsic PA mode will also be reviewed as an emerging application.

As wireless communication keeps expanding and various RF front end technologies are competing for these new markets, continuing challenges are arising for the development of circuit-based device models for power microwave field-effect transistors (FET) that are able to predict the device performance under realistic large-signal operating conditions. Specifically, device models must account for the actual device response when the FETs are excited by modulated RF communication signals exhibiting a high peak to average power ratio. Under such conditions some memory effects such as (1) self-heating and (2) traps in GaN HEMTs, which are intermittently activated by high instantaneous voltages, are observed to profoundly modify the device performance at low average power.
Circuit-based device models based on a physical topology remain of great importance as they provide the means to monitor the load-lines at the current-source reference planes in order to verify the transistor's mode of operation in power amplifiers (PA). They also play an essential role in the promising model-based nonlinear embedding design technique that enables efficient design starting from a desired intrinsic PA mode. However, reasonable, accurate and realistic models are required for successful model-based PA design. Given the high peak to average power ratio of modern RF communication signals, various low-frequency memory effects (self-heating, trapping) are known to be excited by intermittent high instantaneous voltages at peak power. These memory effects can in turn substantially modify the subsequent response of the device under large-signal operation at average power. Much effort has been placed in finding new ways to efficiently characterize and model these effects. This includes direct model extraction from (1) modulated large-signal microwave measurements with NVNAs and (2) various low-frequency large-signal measurement techniques. This workshop will review these various advanced measurement and modeling techniques for the efficient extraction of realistic transistor models as well as present examples of application to power amplifier design.

 

 

WMA-1

Direct extraction of nonlinear FET IV and QV functions from time-domain large-signal measurements


Paul Tasker; Cardiff University, Cardiff UK


This presentation will provide a background review of how the IV and QV state function behavior can be extracted directly from large signal waveform measurements. It will start with a basic introduction to large signal waveform measurements: a system that can measure the time varying terminal voltage and current waveforms present on the transistor when excited by a user controlled stimulus at all ports. The extraction of the transistors IV and QV state function characteristics from this data will then be reviewed. The talk will conclude by discussion on how these extracted characteristics can be used in the state function based non-linear transistor CAD models.

 

 

WMA-2

Parasitic extraction and the intrinsic-element bias-dependence of GaN devices


Apolinar Reynoso-Hernandez; CICESE, Baja de California, Mexico


Power amplifiers based on AlGaN/GaN HEMT devices require accurate nonlinear equivalent circuit models. The development of these nonlinear models needs reliable methods for extracting the parasitic bias independent elements, as well as, the intrinsic bias dependent elements. Thus, a good extraction of the parasitic elements along with a suitable topology leads to reliable extraction of the intrinsic transistor and therefore to accurate nonlinear models. This lecture is focused on different methods for extracting the parasitic elements, as well as the bias dependent intrinsic elements from S-parameters measurements under pulsed IV condition of devices fabricated in a GaN process. Moreover, the aim of the lecture is to show a step by step guide for determining the parasitic and intrinsic elements of the equivalent circuit model. The talk will conclude with an introduction of a neural network approach to compute the drain current source and the charge storage characteristics of the device from the measured intrinsic admittance parameters.

 

 

WMA-3

Extraction of FET nonlinear models by the dynamic-bias measurement technique


Dominique Schreurs; K. E. Leuven, Belgium


This talk deals with the development of transistor nonlinear models based on nonlinear measurements. The advantage of identifying nonlinear models under realistic operation has to be balanced with instrumentation costs and limitations (e.g., bandwidth, power). In this context, the exploitation of low-frequency nonlinear measurements represents an interesting and reliable alternative. A recently proposed measurement technique, i.e., the dynamic-bias, which allows combining the advantages of low- and high-frequency instrumentation, will be covered in detail. In particular, its application to the modeling of GaN and GaAs transistors will be discussed.

 

 

WMA-4

Extraction of ANN model for SOS MOSFET from real-time active-load-pull measurements


Patrick Roblin; The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH


This lecture will start by presenting an example of the extraction of nonlinear model for an SOS-MOSFET including memory effects using a single real-time active load–pull (RTALP) measurements. The efficient phase sweeping of the RTALP drastically reduces the number of large-signal measurements needed for the model development and verification while maintaining the same intrinsic voltage coverage as in conventional passive or active load–pull systems. Memory effects associated with the parasitic bipolar junction transistor (BJT) in the SOS-MOSFET are accounted for by using a physical circuit topology for: 1) the intrinsic FET current–voltage characteristics; 2) the intrinsic charges of the FET; and 3) the BJT dc characteristics, all from the same modulated large-signal RF data. The bias dependence of the charges and IV characteristics are modeled using an artificial neural network (ANN). The verification of the model is performed for load-lines, output power, power efficiency, and load–pull measurements, which are obtained using two additional independent RTALP measurements. The application of this extraction method to the modeling of memory effects in GaN will then be discussed. The importance of self-heating and the cyclostationary charging of traps in GaN HEMTs under large signal RF operation will then be reviewed.

 

 

WMA-5

Advanced GaN and GaAs transistor evaluation and transistor modeling using combined small- and large-signal VNA & NVNA microwave measurements


Iltcho Angelov; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden


This lecture will discuss procedures to characterize advanced GaN and GaAs microwave FET transistors and extract Large-Signal Equivalent Circuit Models (LS ECM) from these transistors. Devices are evaluated using small- and large-signal VNA & NVNA microwave measurements. The idea of (LS ECM) consists of linking important SS and LS model parameters directly to experimentally measured (or TCAD) data. These are: IV, Capacitances & derivatives at important, characteristics, inflection points in IV, S-parameters, Harmonics and LSVNA waveform data. Selecting, correct definitions that follow from device physics will reduce the number of parameters and measurements needed for model fitting. The LS ECM model extraction procedure is speeded this way. The important model parameters are directly connected with measured or TCAD calculated data, so, when needed, LS model parameters can be calculated directly from device physical parameters. The resulting model is compact, converging well in the simulations and easy to understand and extract. A short description will be given how the EC models are constructed and implemented in the CAD tools. Modeling flow will be shown, staring with direct extraction of important device, model parameters. Examples of larger-signal models of GaN, GaAs transistors will be discussed. Special attention will be paid on the modeling of GaN HEMT devices.
The quality of these new advanced devices is improving, devices are used at much higher frequencies, and the uniformity and repeatability of on-wafer measurements is becoming very good. This introduces very stringent requirements on the quality, accuracy, repeatability of the measurements. These issues will be also discussed.

 

 

WMA-6

NVNA-based artificial neural network (ANN) model generation for III-V FETs including traps and thermal memory effects: DynaFET


David E. Root; Keysight Technologies, Santa Rosa


NVNA waveforms, applied using an active-injection characterization system, are used to directly identify a detailed large-signal III-V FET simulation model that includes both trap dynamics and thermal memory. The measurement-based modeling flow includes advanced neural network (ANN) training to represent the electrical constitutive relations and their nonlinear dependence on electrical, thermal, and trap state variables. Fundamentals of the model generation (extraction) methodology will be presented, and the approach contrasted with several others. Comprehensive large-signal validation results from a wide variety of III-V devices will be reviewed.

 

 

WMA-7

Self-heating and trap characterization and simulation for large signal GaN transistor modeling


Raymond Quéré; XLIM Institut de Recherche, Limoges, France


GaN Field Effect Transistors are providing breakthrough performances for microwave Power Amplifiers (PA). However they still suffer from parasitic effects coming from self-heating and traps which severely impact their large signal behavior when fed by complex modulated signals. Thus a careful characterization and modeling of these effects is mandatory to evaluate their impact on the performances of a microwave subsystem. Different sets of measurement and simulation methods, which enable precise characterization of the low frequency dynamics (LFD) of the devices, will be described. They lead to the definition of nonlinear models which take into account both the LFD and the microwave behavior of the transistors in a coupled way which allows explanation and quantification of most of the memory effects observed in large signal measurements.

 

 

WMA-8

Characterization of Dynamic Intrinsic Cells for Scalable FET Circuit Models


Antony Parker; Macquarie University, Sydney


Large FETs operating with large signals drive nearly all the dynamic aspects of memory, temperature, and charge storage, so a model needs to consider a fairly complete picture of a dynamic system. The access manifolds to a large multi-fingered device embeds this dynamic system in a passive electrical and thermal network. De-embedding measurements provides a scalable intrinsic cell that models the FETs dynamics and non-linearity. A model for any large, unseen, device can then be extrapolated by scaling the cell and embedding it in a passive access network model.
The key enabler for modeling is the extraction of the intrinsic characteristics that are dispersion free parameters and scale without offset. These are fitted to large-signal current and charge models that use a trans-impedance in lieu of transit delay or intrinsic resistance. It is the enclosing dynamic system, which includes trapping, breakdown and thermal responses that accounts for the observed dispersion in small-signal data.
The extraction of trapping and thermal dynamics is readily carried out with pulsed-IV measurements. Test plans that capture the extremely large changes in trapping rates with bias and temperature provide data to fit elegant sub-circuit models for trapping and heating. These sub-circuits establish state variables that account for the dispersion and memory in the overall FET characteristics.
State variables driven by the memory processes account for the bias offset between integrals of small-signal characteristics and dc characteristics. Consequently, the full large-signal model is useful for all applications including low-noise small-signal and stability assessments. One model, all geometries, all applications!

 

 

WMB

Session: WMB

Terahertz-wave Wireless Communications

Chair:

Ho-Jin Song, NTT Device Technology Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Japan

Co-Chair:

Jae-Sung Rieh, Korea University, Korea

Abstract:

The terahertz-waves exhibit various interesting unique properties such as the high absorption in water and the high transparency over paper, plastic, clothes, etc. as well as their correspondence to many molecular absorption lines and no harmful ionization effects on biological tissues. Because of these properties, the terahertz-waves have been attracting growing interests among scientific and engineering communities for possible adoption in various application fields such as imaging, spectroscopy, security, and so forth. Another recently emerging application that is more directly related to our daily life is the adoption of the terahertz-waves for broadband wireless communication, which exploits the much wider bandwidth available with the terahertz band compared to the traditional microwave and millimeter-wave bands. With the terahertz wireless communication systems, it is envisioned that extremely large throughputs of 100 Gbps or more will be available in the near future. The objective of this workshop is to provide a current snap shot on this exciting topic to MTT-s members by reviewing the recent progress in the terahertz wireless communications, ranging from the terahertz transceivers in various device technologies, successful demonstration of the tens of Gbps data transmission, up to the standardization activities in IEEE/ITU-R. The workshop will also provide related discussions on the pending technical issues and future research directions in this field. To meet the purpose of this workshop, world-wide authorities from North America, Europe, and Asia in the various fields of high frequency ICs and systems as well as the communication theory and standardization are invited and will run this exciting full-day session.

 

 

WMB-1

InP‐based TMIC Development for Terahertz Wireless Communications


Sanggeun Jeon; Korea University, Korea


In this talk, a recent development of InP-based TMICs for THz wireless communications will be presented. First, the design methodologies for circuit building blocks of THz transceivers, including a low-noise amplifier, power amplifier, up/down mixer, VCO, and other passive components, are provided along with the measurement results. Then, 300-GHz integrated heterodyne receiver and transmitter that employ on-chip fundamental LO and mixers will be presented. By comparing the experimental results with other state-of-the-art THz transceivers, the pros and cons of the proposed fundamental architecture will be discussed. Finally, several other TMICs that are essential for THz beamforming or wideband communication, such as phase shifters and distributed amplifiers, will also be introduced.

 

 

WMB-2

850 GHz wireless link demonstration using InP HEMT


William Bill Deal and Kevin Leong; North Grumman Corporation, USA


This talk describes development of an 850 GHz chipset using InP HEMT transistors with a maximum frequency of oscillation above 1.0 THz. This allows LNA and PA to be incorporated into the receiver and transmitter, and demonstrate a receiver noise figure of approximately 12 dB with a maximum output power of 0 dBm. The system is used to pass data over the air to demonstrate applications at 850 GHz. This talk will include a description of the component development, an overview of receiver and transmitter performance, and a description of the data link experiment.

 

 

WMB-3

Photonics technologies for terahertz communications


Tadao Nagatsuma; Osaka University, Japan


Introduction of photonics technologies for signal generation, modulation and detection is very effective not only to enhance the bandwidth and/or the data rate of THz communications, but also to combine fiber-optic (wired) and wireless networks. In addition, photonics-based approach is expected to bring such ultra-high data rate THz communications technologies to potential users and to meet and explore real-world applications at the earliest opportunity as a technology driver. In this talk, we discuss practical approaches to achieving real-time error-free THz wireless communications using photonics technologies, and show some of our on-going results towards a data rate of 100 Gbit/s.

 

 

WMB-4

Terahertz communications at 300 GHz for KIOSK data downloading system


Ho-Jin Song; NTT Corporation, Japan


For future wireless communications systems to be able to accommodate the needs of users, it is obvious that more spectral resources are necessary. From this point of view, despite several drawbacks of terahertz (THz) waves, such as the poor output power and sensitivity of THz emitters and detectors, respectively, the THz wave band above 275 GHz, which has not been allocated for specific use yet, is very attractive, especially for short-distance applications.
In 2011, a consortium that includes Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT), FUJITSU LIMITED, and the National Institute of Information and Communication Technology (NICT) was formed to investigate fundamental technologies for using the new spectral resources in the THz frequency band in future wireless communications systems. In the five-year plan, the project has been seeking the development of THz electronics based on InP-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) and the packaging of the devices for simple THz communications systems operating at 300 GHz over a distance of 1 meter or less. We are also investigating test and measurement technologies and the basic characteristics of propagation channels at these high frequencies and plan to build a test-bed system based on the usage scenario for Kiosk data downloading, which is capable of operating at the peak data rate of 20-40 Gbps with simple ASK modulation scheme. In this talk, the recent results of the research project will be overviewed and the limitations and challenges at THz frequencies will be discussed.

 

 

WMB-5

240 GHz wireless communication system operating at up to 100 Gbps


Ingmar Kallfass; University of Stuttgart, Germany


A directive fixed wireless link operating at a center frequency of 240 GHz allows to carry out single-input single-output data transmission with up to 100 Gbit/s. A point-to-point outdoor experiment achieves a data rate of 64 Gbit/s over a transmission distance of 850 m using QPSK and 8PSK modulation. For medium range applications up to 100 m, data rates of 96 Gbit/s have been demonstrated. In combination with an optical transmitter, a data rate of 100 Gbit/s was achieved. This workshop contribution presents the current system, discusses its limitations, and highlights some of the prospective and required developments for further performance improvements.

 

 

WMB-6

Pushing CMOS to New Terahertz Heights


Ali. M. Niknejad; University of California, Berkeley, USA


This talk will highlight several projects that aim to push CMOS technology into new application domains that require ultra-high speed connectivity and miniature components. The focus will be on a 240 GHz high data rate transceiver for chip-to-chip communication and energy levels approaching wired and optical links, enabling new form factors for future devices, and eliminating package pins and traces on the PCB. The 65nm prototype design includes on-chip antennas, a mixer-first receiver, high efficiency power amplifiers, frequency triplers, and an injection locked LO chain. Nearly all the essential components of the transceiver are realized in an integrated chip to demonstrate both the potential and the energy efficiency of CMOS technology in > 100 GHz links.

 

 

WMB-7

Towards Wireless 100 Gb/s for Switched-Point-to-Point Links


Thomas Kürner; Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany


In the most recent years, wireless communication networks have been facing a rapidly increasing demand for mobile traffic along with the evolvement of applications that require data rates of several 10s of Gbit/s. In order to enable the transmission of such high data rates, two approaches are possible in principle. The first one is aiming at systems operating with moderate bandwidths at 60 GHz, for example, where 7 GHz spectrum is dedicated to mobile services worldwide. However, in order to reach the targeted date rates, systems with high spectral efficiencies beyond 10 bit/s/Hz have to be developed, which will be very challenging. A second approach adopts moderate spectral efficiencies and requires ultra-high bandwidths beyond 20 GHz. Such an amount of unregulated spectrum can be identified only in the THz frequency range, i.e. beyond 300 GHz. Systems operated at those frequencies are referred to as THz communication systems. In March 2014, the task group 3d (TG3d) has been established, which works on an amendment of 802.15.3 targeting 100 Gbit/s for switched point-to-point links. Applications of interest are wireless data centers, wireless backhauling/fronthauling, point-to-point close-proximity communication including kiosk downloading and intra-device communication. This talk will give an overview on ongoing standardization activities at IEEE 802.15 as well as the corresponding research activities.

 

 

WMB-8

Terahertz band: Next frontier for wireless communications


Josep Miquel Jornet; University at Buffalo, The State University of New, USA


In recent years, wireless data traffic has exponentially grown due to a change in the way today's society creates, shares and consumes information. This change has been accompanied by an increasing demand for higher speed wireless communication. Wireless Terabit-per-second (Tbps) links are expected to become a reality within the next ten years. Towards this aim, Terahertz (THz)-band (0.1-10~THz) communication is envisioned as a key wireless technology to satisfy this demand. The THz band will help to overcome the spectrum scarcity problems and capacity limitations of current wireless networks, by providing an unprecedentedly large bandwidth. In addition, THz-band communication will enable a plethora of long-awaited applications both in classical networking domains as well as in novel nanoscale communication paradigms. In this talk, an in-depth view of THz-band communication networks is presented. First, the challenges in the design and development of THz-band devices are surveyed. The existing limitations and possible solutions in the design of high-speed THz-band transceivers, broadband antennas and dynamic antenna arrays are highlighted. Then, the fundamental research challenges and future research trends in terms of channel modeling; physical layer design, including bandwidth-adaptive modulation, real-time channel coding, and massive MIMO transmission schemes; and, link layer solutions, including error, flow and medium access control for THz-band communication, are outlined in a bottom-up approach, defining a roadmap for the development of this next frontier in wireless communication.

 

 

WMB-9

Experimental progresses on terahertz fronthaul for future mobile systems, and regulatory issues related to ITU-R


Iwao Hosako; Norihiko Sekine; Akifumi Kasamatsu; Atsusi Kanno; Tetsuya Kawanishi and Hiroyo Ogawa; National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, JAPAN


Drastic increase in mobile data traffic will require much more bandwidth in wireless communications. However, the spectral resources are extremely limited because of the heavy use of today's conventional frequency range up to 60 GHz even with spectrally highly efficient quadrature amplitude modulation(QAM) and the spatial diversity achieved with multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) technology. Terahertz frequency band (THz; 0.1-10THz) is the promising candidate for a new-generation wireless communication technology because of their broad available bandwidth. Recently, many research and development projects has focused on the above-mentioned frequency bands, because the high carrier frequencies promise unprecedented channel capacities (e.g. 100 Gbit/s). This presentation overviews the future direction of terahertz wireless technologies and technical challenge of terahertz fronthaul for future mobile systems, including projects on device technologies being funded by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC, JAPAN), wireless system experiments at National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), and standardization time line at the International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunications Sector (ITU-R).

 

 

WMC

Session: WMC

Micro and Nanowatt Smart RF Transceiver ICs for Internet of Things

Chair:

Gernot Hueber, NXP Semiconductors, Austria

Co-Chair:

R. Bogdan Staszewski, University College Dublin, Ireland

Abstract:

Over the last years more and more application of lowest power RFICs are evolving, while at the same time advancements on technology level, as well as on design perspective enable radios for Internet-of-Things solutions. However, those impart unique challenges on the RF-transceiver design with the design goals of lowest power consumption, size and costs that are attractive for mass market applications.
Scaled CMOS on the one hand features the possibility for implementing all RF and control functionality of an Internet-of-Things solution directly on a single IC, on the other hand it shows poor performance in RF circuits compared to other technologies.
The focus of this workshop will be on the challenges RF transceiver design and architectures in low-power RFICs in CMOS, along with a thorough discussion of advanced techniques for receivers and transmitters towards integration with a microcontroller in a SoC. Approaches include novel architectures, low-power analog circuit blocks, and digitally assisted and enhanced analog/RF modules.

 

 

WMC-1

Low-Power 60-GHz CMOS Radios for Miniature Wireless Sensor Network Applications


David Wenztloff; University of Michigan, USA


Complete wireless sensor nodes have recently been demonstrated with volumes in the cubic-mm range. Supporting long range wireless communication in this form factor requires a combination of low power circuits, but-level duty cycling, and high frequency to reduce the size of passives and the antenna. This talk will describe recent work on 60GHz radios for ultra-low power, mm-scale sensor nodes, including measured results from radios with fully integrated antennas and architectures amenable to these small form factors.

 

 

WMC-2

Low-power sub-GHz RF transceivers for E-metering


Melina Apostolidou; NXP Semiconductors, The Netherlands


The Internet of Things (IoT) and Smart Utility Networks (SUNs) pose a challenge for the industry, namely to develop flexible and affordable hardware/software solutions for connecting devices with disparate power, Digital Signal Processing (DSP) capacity, price, and range requirements. New standards favored by recent products are the sub-GHz ZigBee and Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) IEEE 802.15.4g, meant to address operation in the 169–960 MHz ISM bands. Exact requirements are region-dependent and influenced by modulation schemes and data rates. We propose a low-power System-on-a-Chip (SoC) RF transceiver with integrated microcontroller and EEPROM for sub-GHz SUNs. It features FSK/GFSK modulation with data rates up to 200 kbps, draws approximately 12 mA in receive mode and is fabricated in 0.14-μm CMOS technology. Its integrated PA provides up to +14 dBm output power, which can be increased to +27 dBm by means of an external booster, without violating emission requirements. This makes the transceiver fit for robust, long-range communication in difficult environments (e.g., dense urban areas). In this tutorial, we focus on the design and implementation of the frequency synthesizer, called to address the ISM-bands and a variety of modulation schemes with the required modulation bandwidths, while having best-in-class phase noise and low side-band spurs with low power consumption.

 

 

WMC-3

Low Power Oscillators for Ultra Low Power RF


R. Bogdan Staszewski; University College Dublin, Ireland


Power consumption of an RF oscillator has traditionally comprised a large power budget fraction of a wireless transmitter and receiver. With the recent trend in scaling down the transceiver power, the oscillator contribution is actually expected to rise. At a low enough power, in the range of 100's of uW, a typical oscillator would simply stop resonating. Furthermore, the oscillator circuitry, which relies on large inductive components, is typically not amenable to technology scaling, so its figure-of-merit performance is expected to worsen. Hence, there is a strong need to invent new oscillator topologies for ultra-low power operation. This seminar presents an overview of these issues and offers some suggestions.

 

 

WMC-4

Low-Power Design Techniques for a Bluetooth Low Energy SoC


Hiroki Sakurai; Toshiba Corporation, Japan


Recently, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has been widely used in low power equipment. To extend the battery life of the equipment, a power reduction of BLE SoCs is especially important. In this tutorial, we are going to present several low-power techniques for our SoC products, in which both low power operation and sufficient performance for practical use are required. To achieve long battery life, power reduction in both active and sleep modes are indispensable. Some RF design techniques to achieve practical RF performance with low power consumption are also going to be presented.

 

 

WMC-5

Ultra-low power Phase-domain RF Transceiver Design for Short-range WPAN/IoT Standards


Yao-Hong Liu; Holst Centre/IMEC, The Netherlands


Ubiquitous wireless sensors connected through cellular devices are becoming widely used in everyday life, e.g., wearable healthcare monitoring. An ULP RF transceiver is one of the most critical components that enable these emerging applications, as it can consume up to 90% of total battery energy in a remove wireless sensor node. Furthermore, a low-cost radio design with an digital-intensive RF architecture is an important catalyst for developing such applications. In this tutorial, the applications and the requirements of ULP radio for different WPAN/WBAN standards will be discussed. Several low-power phase-domain transceiver architectures (e.g., PLL-based transmitters, phase-domain receivers) will be introduced. A design example with a 2.4GHz sliding-IF receiver with a phase-to-digital converter (SIF-PDC) for Bluetooth Low Energy/IEEE802.15.4 standards will be presented.

 

 

WMD

Session: WMD

Emerging and Silicon Technologies for Bio-sensing from RF to Millimeter-wave Frequencies

Chair:

Arnaud Pothier, XLIM

Co-Chair:

Dietmar Kissinger, TU Berlin

Co-Chair:

Mehmet Kaynak, IHP Microelectronics

Abstract:

Electromagnetic fields from low to millimeter-wave frequencies are presenting lots of interests for biological and medical applications. Indeed the possibility of non-invasively investigation on living cells at a very small scale stimulates currently a large research activities and technological developments. This workshop will consequently address the most promising current advances in microwave and millimeter-wave technologies dedicated to detection, sensing, control and analysis on micro/nano-scale bio-sample applications, focusing on all silicon integrated on a chip approaches and also on emerging technologies that address single cell characterization and detection of bio-molecules in tiny concentration.

 

 

WMD-1

Silicon Based CMOS Integrated Microfluidic Platform for THz-Sensing Applications


Mehmet Kaynak; IHP Microelectronics, Germany


The growing interest on the electrical detection of biological cells stimulates the research community for novel techniques to increase the sensitivity and miniaturize the systems. However, the major obstacle so far to miniaturize the overall systems is the requirement of combining different modules of the systems; such as microfluidic channels, sensor and control/read-out CMOS electronics. In order to obtain miniaturized and smart system, all these modules need to be integrated, if possible on the same chip. Regarding the sensing methods, dielectric permittivity measurement of biological cell suspensions has been used for decades to characterize cell parameters and has been extensively studied. However, the high frequency responses of bio-samples are of great interest to research community which is expected to open the way for many different detection techniques.
In this talk, we present a novel fully CMOS integrated microfluidic channel technology for bio and medical applications. The main benefit of the integrated microfluidic devices is the significant increase of the detecting process and the analyses on the same silicon chip, using CMOS circuitries. We also propose to use the developed microfluidic platform to realize an oscillator at mm-wave frequencies with integrated sensor and microchannels to characterize the concentration of cell species in a suspension.

 

 

WMD-2

CMOS Flow Cytometry Using Microwave Electric and Magnetic Measurement Techniques


Ali Niknejad; Jun-Chau Chien; Pramod Murali; Bernhard Boser; University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA


Rapid cell identification using microfluidics and CMOS technology has the potential to reduce costs and testing time, and perhaps enable point of care diagnostics. In this talk, two approaches will be highlighted. In the first, magnetic beads act as markers and detected by using the change in magnetic coupling between an on-chip transformer driven at an RF on chip VCO. In the second approach, the dielectric constant of cells is measured directly without the use of markers by using an interferometric capacitance measurement techniques at microwave frequencies.

 

 

WMD-3

Magnetic Sensing and Spectroscopy using Magnetic Nano-Particles


Ali Hajimiri; Hua Wang; Stephen Chapman; Costis Sideris; and Alex Pai; California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA


In this talk we will exploit the opportunities and challenges posed by the unique characteristics of magnetic sensing modality for genomics and proteomics sensing. We will discuss CMOS-based magnetic sensors and several of their variations enabling state-of-the-art sensing techniques for DNA and proteins. We will discuss the new exciting prospects of magnetic spectroscopy and investigate the sensing trade-offs in such platform via several practical solutions.

 

 

WMD-4

Broadband RF/Microwave Complex Dielectric Spectroscopy Systems in CMOS


Kamran Entesart; Masoud Moslehi; Ahmed Helmy; Osama El-Hadidy; Sheirf Shakib; Hajir Hedayati and Samuel Palermo; Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA


This talk presents two different approaches to realize integrated complex dielectric spectroscopy systems for a broad RF/Microwave frequency range using 0.18 um CMOS process. These systems can be potentially employed for chemical and biomedical sensing applications.
In the first system, a capacitive sensor exposed to the material under test (MUT) shows variations in its admittance according to the complex permittivity of MUT. The sensing capacitor along with a fixed capacitor forms a voltage divider excited by an RF signal at the sensing frequency.
The magnitude and phase of the voltages across the two capacitors are measured using a quadrature downconversion architecture to find the real and imaginary parts of the MUT's permittivity. At the lower frequency end, the system is configured as a direct-conversion architecture with 3rd and 5th harmonic-rejection to alleviate the problem of harmonic mixing and improve the sensitivity. On the other hand, at the higher frequency end, the system works as a dual-downconversion topology and employs a sub-harmonic mixing technique to reduce the required input clock frequency span.
The second system utilizes a ring oscillator-based phase locked loop (PLL) for wideband complex dielectric spectroscopy of materials under test (MUT).
Characterization of both real and imaginary MUT permittivity is achieved with frequency-shift measurements between a sensing oscillator, with a frequency that varies with MUT-induced changes in capacitance and conductance of a delay-cell load, and an amplitude-locked loop (ALL) - controlled MUT-insensitive reference oscillator.

 

 

WMD-5

Highly Integrated Microwave and Millimeter-wave Analyzers for Emerging Biomedical Microsystems


Dietmar Kissinger1,2,3; 1IHP, Frankfurt (Oder), Germany, 2TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3FAU Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany


This talk presents ultra-broadband highly integrated read-out circuits and biosensors in the microwave and millimeter-wave domain using a low-cost silicon-germanium technology. The first single-chip microwave design features a scalable octave bandwidth architecture including signal generation circuitry. The second fully integrated design achieves a bandwidth of 50-100GHz enabling highly miniaturized broadband sensor readout applications in the area of biomedical sensing. Furthermore, both presented designs facilitate a complete single-chip integration of the overall readout system and the sensing element in standard silicon technology.

 

 

WMD-6

Microwave biosensors dedicated for label-free discrimination of cancer cells


Arnaud Pothier1; L.Y. Zhang1; C. Dalmay1; A. Landoulsi1; J. Leroy1; P. Blondy1; A. Lacroix2; C. Mélin2; F. Lalloué2; S. Battu2; M.O.Jauberteau2; C. Bounaix Morand du Puch3; C. Lautrette3; S. Giraud3; 1XLIM Research Institute, 2Homéostasie cellulaire et Pathologies 3Oncomedics, Limoges, France


This talk will discuss about the great potential of high frequency dielectric micro-spectroscopy for biological cell analysis and discrimination. We will especially introduce an original analysis method based on resonant micro-sensors operating at microwave frequencies allowing the intracellular dielectric properties characterization of sample up to single cells. Based on the specificity of fixed or living biological cell electromagnetic signatures, the developed microwave biosensors have allowed addressing some promising biological issues in cancer research. Hence, we will show that such approach, without requiring any cell labelling, could be helpful to early inform on potential cell aggressiveness degree as an indicator of the tumor development or in the frame of cell differentiation process to evaluate the cell maturity degree. In this talk, we will especially discuss about the latest electromagnetic characteristics we had obtained on immature cancer cells using high frequency dielectric micro-spectroscopy and development of new microfluidic microwave-sensors.

 

 

WMD-7

Tunable Radio Frequency Interferometers for the Detection and Analysis of Molecules in Solutions


Pingshan Wang; Yan Cui; Zheng Wang; Zhe Chen; Yongzhi Shao; ECE Clemson University, SC, USA


In this talk will be presented the design and test of highly sensitive radio frequency (RF) interferometers that are tunable from 10 MHz to 38 GHz. Among others, DNA-water solutions (with pBluescript (SK+) and pET21a (pE) DNAs) as well as glucose-water solutions, are used for interferometer testing. It is shown that the interferometer can detect ~ 10 fg of DNAs in a ~ 1 nL volume. At the same time, broadband and quantitative measurements can help identify molecular compositions of a 3-components solution. Furthermore, filters and resonators are demonstrated to significantly improve interferometer sensitivity. The results show that the interferometers are promising to be a powerful tool for many applications.

 

 

WMD-8

Fast, Compact and Label-Free Microwave Detection of Single Cells


Cristiano Palego1; Y. Ning2; C. R. Multari2; X. Ma2; X. Cheng2; J. C. M. Hwang2; A. Denzi3; C. Merla3; F. Apollonio3; M. Liberti Sapienza3; 1Bangor University, Bangor, United Kingdom, 2Lehigh University, United States, 3University of Rome, Italie


Broadband electrical detection has reached the level of sensitivity and reproducibility required for single-cell detection. Further, simple analysis of the data collected using a novel microchamber confirms that microwave signals can penetrate through the cell membrane to probe the properties of cytoplasm. However, for broadband electrical detection to have more general-purpose uses such as in intracellular probing and in separating different pathogens, even better sensitivity and reproducibility are required. This requirement can be met with further refinement of the test setup and protocol so that the detailed properties of subcellular structures can be reliably de-embedded from the broadband data. Additionally, advanced microwave sensing approaches can be pursued basing on present technologies and by integrating off-chip RF tuning modules, for background drift compensation, and on-chip microfluidic antennas, for wireless data transfer/monitoring.

 

 

WMD-9

Microwave dielectric spectroscopy of human single cells


Katia Grenier1; David Dubuc1; Francois Artis1; Tong Chen1; Mary Poupot2; Jean-Jacques Fournié2; 1LAAS-CNRS, 2CRCT, Toulouse, France


Microwave and millimeter wave dielectric spectroscopy is a powerful technique for non-ionizing and non-destructive material characterization. Therefore, its development for the analysis of the living at the molecular and cellular levels is very attractive for biological researches and biomedical applications, where non-invasively, label-free and contact-less abilities as well as in-liquid measurements constitute important leitmotivs.
The talk will focus on the single cell characterization in their liquid culture medium. Issues in terms of broadband and narrow band measurements, sensitivity, repeatability with standard deviations and real time monitoring of measurements will notably be highlighted on human tumorous single cells.

 

 

WME

Session: WME

Emerging Systems, Methods, and Applications for Microwave and THz Imaging

Chair:

Sherif Sayed Ahmed, Rohde & Schwarz, Munich, Germany 

Co-Chair:

Amin Arbabian,Stanford University

Abstract:

This workshop aims to introduce emerging applications and technologies in the area of microwave, mm-wave, and THz imaging. Experts will present their work on state-of-the-art systems for advanced imaging solutions in security, industrial, navigation, as well as medical domains. Our focus will be on end-to-end systems that combine new algorithms and methods with actual imaging demonstrations. The workshop will address new applications and areas of interest in light of emerging hardware capabilities, both in terms of high-frequency front-ends and arrays as well as post-processing and computation. 

 

 

WME-1

Combing active and passive terahertz imaging systems for security


R. Appleby1; H. Petersson2; S. Ferguson3; 1Innovasec Ltd., UK, 2FOI, Sweden, 3School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The Queen's University Belfast, UK


Within the European commission Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), the project CONSORTIS (Concealed Object Stand-Off Real-Time Imaging for Security) will design and fabricate a stand-off system operating at sub-millimeter wave frequencies. This system will scan people as they walk by the sensor. The aim of the project is to produce a system which has a high probability of detection, low false alarm rates, is non-invasive and respects privacy.
This presentation will describe the top level system design which brings together both passive and active sensors to deliver the necessary performance. The passive system will operate in two bands between 100 and 600GHz and will be based on a cryogen free cooled focal plane array sensor whilst the active system will be a solid-state 340GHz radar. This will maximize the probability of detection and reduce false alarms. A 'systems engineering' approach has been adopted with performance modelling being used to develop the system specifications. These models will be used to show the phenomenology in both the active and passive regions and also to illustrate the trade-offs necessary to realize such a system.
A modified version of OpenFx is used for the passive system and SE-RAY-EM for the active system. Both of these tools are capable of rendering imagery which is electromagnetically correct and accounts for the properties of the sensor. Furthermore this imagery can be animated as in the real system and can be used to develop anomaly detection algorithms.

 

 

WME-2

THz-Videocam – a passive sub-millimetre wave video camera for security Applications

-

Torsten May1; Gabriel Zieger1; Detlef Born1; Solveig Anders1; Hans-Georg Meyer1; Erik Heinz2; 1Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology, Germany, 2Supracon AG, Germany


"THz-Videocam" is a passive security camera which visualizes sub-mm wavelengths using superconducting bolometer arrays. In the intended market it has to compete with established near-field millimeter-wave scanners which use active microwave techniques. Comparing both concepts, a cryogenic sub-mm video camera constitutes a complementary solution to a conventional near-field scan because of its unique feature to perform a stand-off scan with a useful spatial resolution – an ability which is almost out of reach for millimeter-wave technology. Therefore, a sub-mm wave camera could be used in a variety of application scenarios beyond the obvious airport screening, ranging from the protection of buildings (e.g. embassies) to safeguarding public events.
Against the background of existing solutions, our camera will be analyzed in terms of achieved performance and its practical use. The reported current generation was designed to demonstrate stand-off capability whilst achieving a background-limited performance. It is able to record videos with 25Hz frame rate, using a linear array of up to 128 superconducting bolometers in combination with an opto-mechanical scanner. The necessary cooling of the detector array is provided by a commercial pulse tube cooler. For imaging, a 100cm class optics is used which is able to resolve approximately 1.7 cm objects from 20 m distance. For a flexible installation, the object distance can be tuned manually between 10 and 40m.

 

 

WME-3

Imaging Radars Above 180 GHz for Security and Science


K. Cooper; G. Chattopadhyay; R. Dengler; C. Jung; C. Lee; I. Mehdi; T. Reck; and J. Siles; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, USA


Radars operating above 180 GHz offer measurement capabilities that are difficult or impossible to achieve at more conventional microwave or millimeter-wave bands. These include sub-centimeter range resolution, milliradian-scale angular resolution, detection of very small target motion, high sensitivity to submillimeter-size particles and surface roughness, and spectroscopic tunability over important molecular absorption lines. This presentation will review the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's development of hardware components (including THz transceiver arrays and low-loss duplexing), system architectures, and measurement methods for radars operating at 183, 220, 340, and 680 GHz. While security screening imaging radars will be emphasized, emerging scientific applications of mapping small-particle dynamics and measuring humidity using differential absorption spectroscopy will also be discussed.

 

 

WME-4

Automotive Radar chipsets: An overview, requirements and technological challenges & trends


Nader Rohani; Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.,USA


The objective of this presentation is to provide the attendee with an overview of the Millimeter wave Automotive Radars, current status and future trends. In doing so we will be presenting the Automotive Radar Applications and requirements. We will be covering Architecture, implementations and technology choices with their trade-offs and respective challenges. Given the specific requirements for automotive products , We will be discussing the challenges of designing highly integrated , cost effective/high reliability millimeter wave Radar products in large volumes.

 

 

WME-5

Millimeter-Wave Imaging form Security to Non-Destructive Testing Applications – Possibilities & Challenges


Sherif Sayed Ahmed; Rohde & Schwarz, Munich, Germany


Microwave imaging technology with millimeter-waves has proved efficient in addressing the requirements of various security applications, e.g., personnel screening. This extends to cover advances in the HW integration as well as the signal processing techniques involved. The technological capabilities of active scanning with wide-band signals in real-time operation is highly attractive for non-destructive testing (NDT) applications as well. However, the migration of security imaging systems towards NDT applications is not trivial, as many adaptations and customizations are to be performed. Additionally, imaging through electrically thick objects requires on one the hand a high signal dynamic range to cope with the wave propagation losses and on the other hand adequate reconstruction algorithms for proper focusing inside the material volumes. Both are challenging to the HW realization and the signal processing methods. In this talk, an overview on an advanced imaging solution with multistatic array operating in the W-band designed to serve in the security domain is made, and hence followed by a discussion on the possibilities and the associated challenges to utilize this technology into the NDT domain.

 

 

WME-6

Millimeter Wave Radar Imaging for Security and Industrial Applications


Nils Pohl & Dirk Nuessler; The Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques (FHR)


Nowadays, modern semiconductor technologies allow to highly-integrate multi-channel Radar sensors in the mmWave regime at moderate cost level, which enables imaging sensors in transmission or reflection setups. Therefore, a new technology for object detection and material classification in industrial process environments (in-line), as well as for security purposes is around the corner. Due to the demands for high spatial resolution, frequencies around 100 GHz and even higher are mandatory, which is still a challenging task for cost-efficient technologies.
This contribution addresses the underlying circuit technologies as well as the application environments. On circuit level, sensor concepts up to 240 GHz for radar operation will be presented and finally various application examples of microwave imaging for solving real problems in the field of plastic recycling, security envelope scanning and in inline production environments will be given.

 

 

WME-7

Contrast-enhanced microwave breast imaging


Susan C. Hagness; University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA


The potential of using of non-ionizing microwave-frequency electromagnetic waves to sense or image the dielectric properties of human tissue has captivated the interest of engineers and clinicians alike. Tissue dielectric properties are influenced by endogenous polar molecules, and as a result, convey useful clinical information about water content, protein content and hydration, angiogenesis, blood flow alterations such as ischemia and infarction, and temperature changes. Tissue dielectric properties can also be influenced by exogenous molecules, such as tumor-targeting nanoparticles, introduced as contrast agents. This workshop presentation will provide a general overview of microwave medical imaging techniques and will highlight recent progress in microwave imaging technology for contrast-enhanced breast cancer detection.
Measurement systems designed for full breast imaging use a number of remote sensors (e.g. antennas) to transmit low-power microwave signals into the breast and measure the scattered fields. The inverse problem that must be solved to reconstruct the dielectric properties distribution throughout the breast is highly ill-posed, and thus the solution is extremely sensitive to the quality of the measured data. A microwave inverse scattering algorithm with sparsity regularization has been recently developed to detect and image breast tumors with contrast enhancement. The performance of this technique has been demonstrated for simulated array measurements acquired from 3D anatomically realistic numerical breast phantoms and for experimental data acquired from anthropomorphic physical breast phantoms using an imaging system comprising a shielded, enclosed array of miniaturized patch antennas, a vector network analyzer, and a switch matrix.

 

 

WME-8

RF- Acoustic Hybrid Imaging Techniques for Medical and Security Applications


Amin Arbabian; Stanford University, USA


Conventional medical imaging modalities (MRI, PET, CT) rely on expensive and bulky hardware that limit usage to hospitals and clinics. Large and expensive devices prohibit usage in ambulatory cases or where time-sensitive and on-site diagnosis is critical (e.g., detection of internal hematomas or intracranial abnormalities). In addition to access, safety is a concern with a majority of the imaging techniques. This is especially an issue in applications like cancer screening where frequency of test is limited by concerns with radiation dosage.
This presentation will provide an overview of hybrid imaging techniques that combine RF/Microwave excitation with ultrasound detection to provide high-resolution imaging of dielectric contrast created by hemorrhages or by tumor angiogenesis and necrotic cores. New frequency-domain RF Magneto-Acoustic and Microwave Thermoacoustic imaging techniques will be presented. Imaging results from various dielectric materials will also be outlined. Additionally, a new microwave-ultrasound hybrid non-contact imaging technology that can be used for remote interrogation of hidden/embedded objects in highly dispersive media will also be presented.

 

 

WME-9

Computational and performance trade-offs of super-resolution techniques in FMCW radar


Murtaza Ali; Texas Instruments


Millimeter wave Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radars are often used to localize objects with very high accuracy in range, velocity, and angle estimates. The traditional Fourier based signal processing technique for range and velocity estimation has a theoretical limit on range resolution. They also often fail to detect close by objects with very different radar cross-sections (RCS) even when they are separated by more than this limit. There are well known super-resolution techniques are often used in angle estimation with multiple antenna systems that have been shown to detect and localize objects even when their spacing is less than the traditional limits. These techniques can be extended to range and velocity measurement as well leading to the potential of joint high resolution detection and estimation of range, velocity and angle. However, these techniques require very high computational complexity. In this paper, we will discuss the trade-offs among performance and complexity of these techniques. We will provide case studies of applications where these super-resolution techniques may be beneficial. We will show how super-resolution techniques can be used as a complementary technique on top of traditional Fourier based techniques to focus on areas of interest thereby reducing the computational complexity.

 

 

WME-10

Next-Generation Information-Theoretic mm-Wave Imaging Radar: Theory and Experiments


Upamanyu Madhow1; Amin Arbabian2; 1University of California at Santa Barbara, USA 2Stanford University, USA


It is well known that estimation-theoretic techniques can be used to attain imaging resolution beyond classical Rayleigh-style bounds. In this talk, we discuss two examples of such super-resolution for next-generation mm wave imaging radar with bandwidth and form factor constraints. First, the problem of range estimation of multiple targets, modeled as point scatterers, is recast as one of estimation for a mixture of sinusoids, with resolution limited by estimation-theoretic bounds such as the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound or the Ziv-Zakai bound, rather than coarse measures such as inverse of bandwidth. Second, the degrees of freedom limitations imposed by form factor constraints (e.g., for mm wave radar implemented on a consumer electronics device) are considered, and it is shown that it is necessary to go beyond classical point scatterer target models in order to apply estimation-theoretic techniques. In both cases, we provide super-resolution algorithms that approach estimation-theoretic bounds, using a mixture of ideas from matching pursuit and gradient/Newton style iterations. Our approach is validated on a stepped-frequency continuous wave (SFCW) 60 GHz imaging testbed, where the SFCW waveform is designed so as to avoid the velocity aliasing for classical linear SFCW.

 

 

WMF

Session: WMF

Application of Waveform Engineering in Design of High Power Doherty PAs

Chair:

 Justin Annes, Freescale Semiconductor

Co-Chair:

 David Wu, Freescale Semiconductor

Abstract:

 Since D. Snider presented the concept of waveform engineering in 1967, it has captured the imagination of power amplifier (PA) engineers. However, its use and application by researchers and practitioners in this field has been limited at best due to a number of factors, principally among them being a well-defined design methodology. The goals of this workshop are to bridge this gap and suggest a useful first order approach of applying waveform engineering in the design of high power Doherty amplifiers. Concepts covered include a review and explanation of waveform engineering concepts based on first order principles (for those attendees who are not experts in this field). Following presentations will tend toward more in-depth discussions on focused topics as it applies to high power amplification.
In addition to the technical presentations, the workshop will include a laboratory simulation component where attendees will have an opportunity to explore many of the concepts using software tools in a series of instructor driven and guided mini-projects. This will enhance the interactivity of the workshop by including both presentation material coupled with "hands on" student CAD.

 

 

WMF-1

RF I-V Waveform Measurement and Engineering - the unifying link between transistor technology, circuit design and system performance


Paul Tasker; Cardiff School of Engineering


Microwave power amplifier performance, output power, conversion efficiency and linearity, etc., is significantly influenced by the terminal voltage and current time varying waveforms that develop at the transistor terminals; terminal waveforms are the unifying theoretical link between transistor technology, circuit design and system performance. Thus waveform engineering should be a major objective driving the power amplifiers design flow. However, in practice power amplifier design, while waveform engineering may be a guiding principle, the lack of appropriate RF waveform measurements tools has hindered its direct application at microwave frequencies. This is no longer the case, thanks to the development of RF characterization systems capable of both measuring RF voltage and current waveforms while engineering the RF voltage waveforms stimulating all ports; practical RF Waveform Measurement & Engineering solutions are commercially available. This lecture will discuss these emerging systems and show they are now finally enabling practical waveform engineering to be directly undertaken within the power amplifier design flow. Design support can involve either direct utilization of the measurement system in the design investigation/evaluation loop, or indirect use by providing CAD accessible datasets.

 

 

WMF-2

Large signal PA design methodologies and why they are all fundamentally flawed


Steve C Cripps; Cardiff School of Engineering


A typical approach to designing a large signal PA is to characterize a device using various measurement techniques and then use that empirical data to design a circuit to achieve performance goals. Load pull, small signal s-parameters and DC-IV measurements are the typical tools of choice to obtain a semi-detailed understanding of how a particular device behaves under certain conditions. These measurement techniques are inherently limited in one way or another, leaving the PA designer to make compromises and assumptions in the design process. S-parameters are gathered under small signal conditions and therefore don't represent the dynamic nature of the device under non-linear conditions. Load pull data can be easy to gather for the fundamental frequency, but harmonic content requires access to extensive resources in the form of expensive test equipment and a significant amount of time. This discussion will cover all the pros and cons of the various characterization and design methodologies and will touch on how accurate models with access to the current generator will provide the best overall approach in terms of time and money for a PA design engineer in the industry.

 

 

WMF-3

Creating Models for Waveform Engineering


Kevin Kim; Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.


Accurate, non-linear models are building blocks of a solid design methodology and can reduce time to market and save money for a PA designer in the industry. Models also allow us an unprecedented look into the operation of a device. If one can gain access to the information at the current generator, it will allow for creating a design methodology based in waveform engineering. The evolution and creation of accurate, non-linear compact models will be discussed in this presentation. Additionally, some approaches to identifying or de-embedding the intrinsic device waveforms derived from large signal simulation will be explored.

 

 

WMF-4

Validating Models for Waveform Engineering – reconciling measurement vs. simulation


Basim Noori; Apple Inc.


If models are to be depended on to create state of the art PAs, then consistent, accurate validation of those models are a necessity. Validating a model requires typical characterization techniques, but validating to a high level of accuracy requires a highly advanced level of measurement techniques. This presentation will discuss how active, multi-harmonic load pull systems have become the required workhorse for validating models capable of allowing an accurate waveform engineering design approach.

 

 

WMF-5

Bridging the gap between fundamental and practical


David Yu-Ting Wu; Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.


RF power amplifier theory is fundamentally built on the intrinsic FET voltage and current waveforms. These descriptions are often simple and mathematically elegant. In contrast, practical RFPA designs often involve significant bench tuning accompanied by an equal amount of empirical guesswork. The large gap between RFPA theory and practice and can be attributed to the lack of access to the intrinsic waveforms as well as an over-reliance on load-pull based design approach.
When an accurate FET model with access to the intrinsic waveforms is coupled with deep knowledge of RFPA theory, an alternative design approach emerges with the potential to extract maximum device performance while reducing design time. In this approach, designers will not only leverage familiar design parameters such as power, efficiency, linearity and gain, but also utilize the intrinsic current and voltage waveforms as part of the design process.
The goal of the presentation is to bridge the gap between the fundamental RF PA theory and the nuisances of practical implementation. Discussion of PA circuit design will include Class-AB, continuous Class B/J modes, Class-F and Doherty PA.

 

WMF-6a

Lab Tutorial – Getting Started with Intrinsic Node Access


Justin Annes; Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.


This lab tutorial will be hands on and use a commercially available product model for the cellular industry to demonstrate how current and voltage waveforms can be manipulated by various matching topologies. We will start with the basic class A/B/C and work through to class f, f-1, D SMPA etc. Participants will be led through each exercise in the CAD simulator. An example of how this modeling approach allows observation of peak transient voltages and how this can be used to design for margin to ruggedness will also be presented.

WMF-6b

Lab Tutorial – Waveform engineering a Doherty PA with product model


Rudy Gutierrez; Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.


This lab tutorial will be a hands on and use a commercially available product model for the cellular industry to demonstrate how current and voltage waveforms can be observed to construct a f-1 Doherty amplifier and insure the correct modes of operation are being obtained. The tutorial will step through the process and give the participants hands on experiences using CAD software. Test benches and data displays will be provided and the workspace will be handed out to each participant.

 

 

WMG

Session: WMG

Antenna and Packaging Technologies for mmWave Front-End Integration

 

Chair:

Kevin Xiaoxiong Gu, IBM Research

 

Abstract:

Millimeter-wave packaging and co-design with integrated antenna is one of the most important aspects of implementing frond-end modules for many emerging commercial applications. This full-day workshop introduces recent research and development of state-of-the-art antenna and packaging technologies. The applications discussed in the workshop cover a wide range of mmWave spectrum, including 28GHz (post-4G phased-array), 60GHz (WiGig and point-to-point link), 77GHz (automotive radar), 94GHz, 120GHz and beyond (radar, imaging, etc.). Nine invited speakers from leading industries and academy in this area around the globe will present their mmWave antenna and packaging work with focus on different substrate technologies, including but not limited to silicon, glass, multilayer organic polymer, RCP (redistributed chip package), eWLB (embedded wafer level ball grid array) and LTCC (low temperature co-fired ceramic).

 

 

 

 

WMG-1

Advanced Glass and Multilayer Polymer Substrates for WiGig Module Implementation

 


Telesphor Kamgaing; Intel Corporation

 


The ISM frequency band around 60 GHz presents a huge opportunity for short range wireless communication with datarate in the order of several Gigabits per second (Gbps). Those data rates are key enablers for applications such as wireless docking, wireless sync-and-go, rapid video downloading, and the display/streaming of uncompressed high definition video. Radio circuits such as amplifiers have the disadvantage that the output power of typical CMOS transistors drops significantly with increasing frequency; hence, it's necessary to combine several amplifiers in a phased array to create signal beams with decent strengths. The CMOS phased array transceiver is supported by antennas that are implemented on a package substrate. Given the low gain of mm-wave on-chip power- and low-noise-amplifiers and the high signal attenuation associated with on-chip interconnects, it's critical that the package exhibit low routing losses and deliver antennas with very high efficiency. This requires a proper combination of material selection, antenna design, substrate design and fabrication. This presentation will discuss some organic and non-organic low loss dielectric material that may be suitable for use at millimeter wave frequencies. In the first part of the presentation, we investigate photodefinable glass both in terms of processing and suitability for mm-wave frequencies. Test structures including through-glass vias, transmission lines and microstrip patch antennas on glass have been fabricated and fully characterized up to 67 GHz. In the second part of the presentation, we will discuss functional phased array modules implemented on multilayer liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrates as well as techniques to improve antenna performance on thin microelectronic package substrates.

 

 

 

 

WMG-2

Millimeter‐wave IC Antenna co-Integration for Integrated Transmitters and Receivers

 


Arun Natarajan; Oregon State University

 

We will focus on challenges and techniques for co-integration of antennas with mm-wave ICs. Small physical size and high resolution in sensors and >10Gb/s wireless links at mm-wave frequencies make it attractive to implement silicon ICs at mm-wave. While there have been several demonstrations of integrated mmWave Tx and Rx arrays, interfacing the ICs to the antenna-in-package(AiP) remains a major cost and yield bottleneck. Multi-Gb/s wireless links and high-resolution imagers are attractive systems to implement in CMOS but they require mm-wave and sub-mmwave arrays to provide power, sensitivity and directivity. Cost and element density in such arrays is limited by the interconnect to the AiP that's typically implemented in LTCC or organic PCB technology. On-chip antennas and proximity-coupled antennas have been proposed but they suffer from efficiencies < 25% and/or bandwidth < 10%, or high complexity packaging. We will discuss a wafer-scale compatible approach for antenna integration with CMOS and BiCMOS ICs that achieves state-of-the-art overall efficiencies and large bandwidths while significantly simplifying packaging and testing complexity. A 60GHz implementation will be presented that demonstrates the feasibility of this approach and applicability to mm-wave ICs in the W-band and beyond.

 

 

 

 

WMG-3

Advances in Packaging for RF and Millimeter‐Wave System Integration

 


Maciej Wojnowski; Klaus Pressel; Infineon Technologies AG

 


We present outstanding developments that emerged in assembly and interconnect technologies for millimeter-wave system integration. Limitations in pin count of standard WLP packages lead to the development of the embedded wafer level ball grid array (eWLB). We demonstrate the outstanding system integration capabilities of eWLB for millimeter-wave applications. We start with 2D eWLB. We show low-loss transmission lines and high-quality (high-Q) planar inductors realized using the thin-film redistribution layers (RDL) of eWLB. The short signal pathways of eWLB result in excellent electrical characteristics up to millimeter-wave frequencies. We present chip-package-board transitions without external matching networks optimized for use at 60/70/80 GHz bands. The use of vertical interconnections and double-sided RDL extend the integration capabilities to the third dimension leading to 3D eWLB. We present the ways of realizing vertical interconnections in eWLB using through encapsulate vias (TEV), through silicon vias (TSV), and novel embedded Z lines (EZL). We show examples of package-on-package modules, surface-mount devices (SMD) integrated on package, and high-Q 3D inductors realized in the volume of the mold compound. Finally we present the concepts of antenna integration in eWLB and show examples of different antenna structures realized in eWLB. To demonstrate the SiP integration capabilities of eWLB, we show 60 GHz and 77 GHz eWLB transceiver modules with integrated antennas.

 

 

 

 

WMG-4

Multilayer Organic Packaging for Microwave and Millimeter-wave Front Ends

 


John Papapolymerou; Georgia Institute of Technology

 


In this talk we will present the most recent advances of multilayer organic technology for mm-wave and sub-mm-wave applications. The three-dimensional System-on-a-Package (SoP) RF front end architecture has been proven to be a very attractive and cost effective alternative to System-on-a-Chip (SoC) and System-in-Package (SiP) technologies. With the advent of high speed silicon based (CMOS, SiGe) and III-V (GaN, InP) mm-wave and sub-mm-wave integrated circuits, there is a need for a flexible yet high-performance and cost-effective integration and packaging platform that can span very wide frequency ranges (from a few GHz to THz) and support multiple application targets. The demonstration of thin organic layers laminated together at relatively low temperatures while allowing the successful embedding of various integrated circuits at mm-wave bands and beyond, has paved the way for this high-performance RF SOP technology. Specific examples ranging from X-band to D-band and from low RF power to high RF power with excellent performance will be presented.

 

 

 

 

WMG-5

W-band, D-band and THz Silicon Based Passive Imager Array in a Module

 


Noam Kaminski; IBM Research, Haifa, Israel

 


Nowadays SiGe BiCMOS technology exhibit high RF performance even at high frequency such as W-band, and D-band and above. This technology enables high mixed signal integration to incorporate the readout circuits and digital interfaces into the RF circuit. This attribute enables the integration of an array of RF receivers to form a passive imaging system at the millimeter-wave frequencies range. The talk will start by describing the millimeter-wave imaging solutions by IBM which incorporates 16 receivers in the same module. Each receiver is composed of an antenna-in-package, connected to the silicon-based receiver, with a low-noise-amplifier, followed by a power detector and a readout circuit. We will shortly describe the silicon solution and performance. The main focus of the talk would be on IBM W-band and D-band packages. These packages are based on antenna pitch on the order of 1λ (airy disc) and therefore can achieve high antenna gain by using horn antenna. The waveguides leading to the horn antenna are embedded in the package, which is based on a low cost and high performance PCB technology. Each package is designed in a tile-like manner, so that they can be assembled one next to the other to form a full imaging system. The talk will conclude with describing the THz imaging solution, which is based solely on silicon technology (package and receiver).

 

 

WMG-6  Millimeter Wave Packaging Using LTCC with Embedded Antennas


Hsin‐Chia Lu; National Taiwan University


The short wavelength of millimeter wave makes it possible to realize a wireless communication module with antenna array in the size of a typical IC package in size of few centimeters. By embedding antennas into suitable packaging substrate like low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) and using flip-chip interconnect between die and substrate, a package with minimum loss can be realized. In this talk, we will introduce the fabrication process for LTCC and the design of embedded antennas/arrays by using this multilayer substrate. The multi-layer structure of LTCC allows the creation of antenna structure not just in planar direction but also in vertical direction. The design of sub-circuits inside the die will also be covered.

WMG-7  mmWave Phased-array Technologies for Post-4G Wireless Communications


Wonbin Hong; Samsung Electronics


Exploitation of millimeter-wave frequencies is widely being researched for next-generation cellular applications. Used in conjunction with legacy technologies such as LTE in the form of fall-back, millimeter-wave wireless communication is projected to offer significantly enhanced wireless capacity, spectral efficiency and cell-edge data rates. However, the relatively high attenuation and absorption loss at millimeter-wave will likely cause adverse effects on the EIRP and sensitivity of the transceiver. Consequently, the RF architecture and packaging schematic are subject to major modifications and it is imperative to investigate novel design methodologies focused on increasing the overall efficiency of the RF frontend. In this presentation, we present the major challenges and their ensuing possible packaging solutions in realizing a compact, efficient phased-array front-end module at 28/60 GHz.

WMG-8  Industrial mmW Chipset Enablement Using Low Loss BGA Package and 3D Printed Plastic Lens


Fred Gianesello; STMicroelecetronics


The rapid growth of wireless data drives new design challenges for RF chipset and handheld/mobile device manufacturers along with carriers. The massive data traffic to be supported by wireless networks requires the development of cost effective high speed and low power wireless link (both from end user and network side). To address this challenge, millimeter wave technologies (WiGig standard at 60 GHz, backhauling in E band ...) have emerged as promising solutions in order to offer multi gigabit per second data rate at low power. Moreover, the possibility to integrate those wireless systems using silicon based technologies (either CMOS or BiCMOS) enables to offer cost effective solutions required by both consumer and industrial markets (we can have in mind here the cost constraint related to the deployment of 5G heterogonous network). But millimeter wave technologies do not only require cost effective RF ICs achieved in advanced silicon technologies, high performances and low cost packaging and antenna technologies are also key issues. This talk will provide a review concerning the various technologies (on chip silicon antenna, 3D Si interposer, WLP, HTCC, organic FCBGA, ...) that have been considered in the past years to develop cost effective millimeter wave package and antenna in package solutions. We will then discuss the opportunity to leverage this System in Package approach by using 3D printing technology in order to develop innovative and cost effective millimeter wave system compliant with the requirement of longer distance (up to 2 km) point to point system (that are today required for the backhaul and fronthaul of 4G small cells).

WMG-9  RCP Package Technology and its Application in mmWave RADAR System


Ziqiang Tong; Freescale Semiconductor


Freescale Semiconductor introduced its new packaging technology – redistribution chip packaging (RCP) since 2006. Nowadays, RCP technology has been wildly used in 3G-mobile phone applications, SiP, etc. It reduces the substrate area and removes the bonding wire from the system integration. Recently, Freescale extends the application of RCP packaging to mmW applications—77GHz automotive RADAR chip set. With high flexibility, RCP supports low cost solution for high integration of mmW front-end system. In this talk, I will present the Freescale package technology – Redistribution Chip Packaging and its mmW application.

 

 

WMH

Session: WMH


Chair:

 

 Vittorio Camarchia, Politecnico di Torino

Co-Chair:

 

 Marco Pirola, Politecnico di Torino

Co-Chair:

Roberto Quaglia, Politecnico di Torino

Abstract:

 

 The increasing demand of higher data rates of mobile communications is deeply affecting the entire network infrastructure, especially concerning the so-called backhaul. Microwave backhaul solutions are expected to become the leading technology in the point-to-point connections. Microwave and mm-wave electronics for backhaul represents a rapidly evolving technical area. This workshop gives a picture of the microwave backhaul scenario, describing its pros and cons with respect to wired solutions, and highlighting the perspective for the industry. The historical aspects, the main research topics and future trends of microwave radio links are discussed, also considering the upcoming 5G systems. The organizers will collect the most interesting discussions between the speakers and the audience, and a follow-up will be delivered via e-mail to the attendees.

 

 

 

WMH-1

 

Mobile backhaul: opportunities for the microwave industry


 

Vittorio Camarchia; Marco Pirola; Roberto Quaglia; Politecnico di Torino


 

Microwave backhaul represents a viable and convenient solution for the mobile network evolution worldwide. The foreseen great investment will drive the adoption of new technological solutions in the field of microwave electronics. This introductory talk presents the figures related to the growing backhaul market, and addresses the main open issues in the microwave field.

 

 

 

WMH-2

 

Microwave Digital Radio Link transceivers: historical aspects and trends


 

Maurizio Pagani; Huawei Italia


 

Historically, since the very beginning of their initial deployment, Microwave Digital Radio Link systems have been continuously challenged by though product requirements like improving spectrum efficiency, increasing capacity and reducing the total cost of ownership. This continuous evolution in the market scenario has demanded through the past years a tremendous development of the transceiver technology, making possible the achievement of extremely high levels of reduction in power consumption, cost and form factor while improving electrical performance, yield, and reliability at an increasing operating frequency. These trends will be described with a good level of details showing how additional emerging technologies can offer an effective way to further increase the achievable performance.

 

 

 

WMH-3

 

Low complexity coding and modulation schemes for high spectral efficiencies in the wireless backhaul of mobile access networks


 

Guido Montorsi1; Stefano Chinnici2; 1Politecnico di Torino, 2Ericsson


 

The required spectral efficiency for wireless backhaul of mobile access network is constantly increasing, due to the augmented traffic demand, the increased signal to noise ratio corresponding to the reduced radio link length, and the bandwidth cost. In this talk, we will present the main difficulties and complexity constraints that limit the coding and modulation system for very high spectral efficiencies. In particular, we will show some solutions where the complexity of the receiver does not grows exponentially with the required spectral efficiency. State of the art solutions for low complexity coding and modulation schemes are discussed.

 

 

 

WMH-4

 

Integrated power amplifiers for microwave backhaul


 

Paolo Colantonio1; Vittorio Camarchia2; Marco Pirola2; Quaglia Roberto2; 1Università di Roma Tor Vergata, 2Politecnico di Torino


 

The power amplifier is the main actor in the microwave transmitter, consuming the most of the energy and highly influencing linearity. For backhaul radio links, the limited power budget poses strong challenges about the intrinsic linearity of the power amplifier. State of the art solutions for MMIC power amplifiers are discussed, focusing on the available technologies for the different frequency bands.

 

 

 

WMH-5

 

Antenna design for microwave links


 

James Watt; Flann Microwave


 

Backhaul microwave radio use frequencies across the entire microwave and mm-wave spectrum. Moreover, the deployment of small cells for 4G and future 5G systems will require a large number of antenna sites, with important requirements of integration, size and low visual impact. Different antenna design solution are needed for the different frequency bands, and to meet the hard requirements of performance and cost.

 

 

WMH-6

 

Capacity increase: A system-wide challenge


 

Matteo Oldoni; Goran Biscevic; Piero Coassini; SIAE Microelettronica, Italy


 

The relentless demand for data communications in the modern world requires unprecedented backhauling capabilities: but how to face such a tough challenge?
The incessant strive for higher data-transfer capabilities is today the main driver for new solutions affecting every aspect of these state-of-the-art telecommunication equipment: technology, digital processing and electromagnetics provide complementary but intertwined possibilities. A glance to current techniques and perspectives is presented while focusing on potential outcome and requirements.

 

 

WMI

Session: WMI

Advances of Microwave and Millimeter-wave Technologies for Vehicular Communication and Safety Driving

Chair:

Alessandro Cidronali, Dept. Information Engineering, University of Florence 

Co-Chair:

 Vijay K. Nair; Intel Corp.

Abstract:

 The medium term vision for Intelligent Transportation Systems foresees the establishment of a radio communication among vehicles and the road infrastructure, for the propagation of useful information aimed at safety and efficient traffic management.
This is reflected in the work of regulatory bodies in Europe, USA and Japan, by which they have established common radio access technologies and protocols to harmonize and stimulate the growth of this technology. Significant effort is also devoted to the coexistence with other applications developed and consolidated as an answer to specific needs, such as road tolling and radar assisted driving.
While most of the research is currently devoted to the development of higher communication layers, the hardware platforms suitable to roll-out this scenario are in an evolutionary stage.
This workshop provides a comprehensive description of the most relevant research topics in the area of vehicular communications with special emphasis on microwave and millimeter wave techniques and methods.
Workshop topics include:

  • Front-end architecture for road-side units and on-board units- Automotive radar
  • Microwave and millimeter wave car-to-x communications
  • Applications in real world cases

The speakers, belonging to both academic and industrial institutions, will create a mix of new visions to this emerging field of vehicular communication systems.

 

 

 

WMI-1

Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC): An ad hoc communication technology for the high mobility vehicular environment


John Kenney, Toyota InfoTechnology Center, Mountain View, CA, USA


DSRC is an emerging technology that will enable vehicles to communicate with each other and with roadside infrastructure. One key application is to communicate vehicle positions and road conditions that allow a vehicle to identify hazards and collision threats. The safety benefits of DSRC have prompted a US Department of Transportation decision to require it in new cars within a few years. DSRC is also useful for many other applications, including enhanced traffic mobility, emission reduction, tolling, and commercial services. This talk introduces DSRC, addresses some of the technical challenges of communication at high speed in a severe multi-path environment, and discusses the future deployment of DSRC in the US and around the world.

 

 

WMI-2

Real-time MAC approaches for vehicular communications and its implications in PHY layer design


Arnaldo Oliveira, Dep. de Electrónica, Telecomunicações e Informática, Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal


The medium access is regarded as being one of the most challenging issues to solve in order to provide deterministic wireless communications in vehicular networks. The standard and general purpose protocols have been shown to fail in addressing this issue and some possible solutions have been proposed in the recent years. This talk provides an overview of the proposed techniques and their implementation requirements in terms of the PHY layer support.

 

 

WMI-3

Characterization of short range intra-vehicle wireless links comparing Ultrawideband 3-11 GHz and Millimeter Waves 55-65 GHz


Christoph F. Mecklenbräuker1; Aleš Prokeš2; Jiri Blumenstein2; Thomas Zemen3; 1TU Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2TU Brno, Brno, Czech Republic, 3AIT, Vienna, Austria


This contribution reports on in-vehicle radio propagation channel measurements for in-vehicle sensors in the Ultra Wide Bandwidth (UWB) frequency range 3-11 GHz and Millimeter Waves (MMW) 55-65 GHz. The effects of antenna placement in the vehicle's compartment, line of sight (LOS) and non-line of sight (NLOS) scenarios, as well as the effects due to the presence of passengers are studied. Statistics of the measured transfer functions result in a description of the channel's propagation loss and reverberation characteristics. We compare the UWB and MMW channel characteristics in detail.

 

 

WMI-4

Technologies for DSRC on-board and road-side units for road tolling applications


Alessandro Cidronali; Stefano Maddio; Marco Passafiume; Gianfranco Manes; University of Florence; Dept. Information Engineering, Italy


The medium term vision for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) foresees the establishment of a radio communication among vehicles (v2v) and the road infrastructure (v2i), for the propagation of useful information aimed at safety and efficient traffic management. The most diffused use cases are enabled by on-board unit (OBU) and Road Side Equipment (RSE) capable to transmit and receive suitable position-referenced information. ITS need to coexist with more established and diffused application while for instance road tolling which adopts DSRC. For these specific cases the communication profile differ but they share the same frequency spectrum and ultimately have to coexists. This encourage the development of flexible radio architectures capable to supports different applications profiles and communication standard. This talk review the technologies for both OBU and RSE suitable for ITS and DSRC applications.

 

 

WMI-5

Transceiver Technology Fusion of Wireless Communication and Radar Sensing Systems


Ke Wu; Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, University of Montreal, Canada


Wireless communication and radar sensing are two of the most prominent applications of radio technology. In the past, these two systems operate differently and independently. However, if implemented, the system fusion of wireless communication and radar sensing would definitely bring up many benefits such as architecture unification, simplification, and miniaturization, functional reconfiguration and fusion, and especially efficiency enhancement and cost reduction. This presentation reviews the emerging advances in the waveform design and system development for multifunctional wireless systems that integrate both communication (radio) and sensing (radar) functions. State-of-the-art communication-radar (or radio-radar) modulation schemes are presented and their features are discussed with reference to various challenging issues, namely, transceiver fusion, spectrum choice, system integration, and design platform. Theoretical and experimental research results on integrated communication and radar platform are highlighted to showcase the current development for vehicular applications. Future research topics in this direction are also pointed out with special interest in up-band millimeter-wave exploration and system-on-substrate development.

 

 

WMI-6

Virtual Microwave Drive: Software based development and evaluation of next generation's automotive microwave subsystems


Thomas Zwick -Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT) Institut für Hochfrequenztechnik und Elektronik (IHE), Germany


Initially, this talk will introduce the basic idea of developing and evaluating automotive microwave systems by virtual test-drives. These include the hardware, channel and software post-processing. The usage of an existing software tool-chain for system simulations is demonstrated, which also gives an insight into two actual research areas. For car-to-x communications optimum antenna radiation patterns for SISO/MIMO or radiation pattern reconfigurable antennas can be found. They are afterwards evaluated in terms of e.g. the resulting channel capacity or outage capacity. For automotive radars the received interference power levels for future, not yet present radar penetration rates is predicted by simulation. Further, the impact of radar-interference up to the tracking of objects is monitored for an FMCW-radar.

 

 

WMI-7

Integration and Performance Aspects of Automotive Radar at Millimeterwave and Sub-Millimeterwave Frequencies


Mike Koehler Mike Koehler; Lorenz-Peter Schmidt; Martin Vossiek; Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institute of Microwaves and Photonics, Germany


Modern driver assistance systems using radar sensors operating in a frequency range up to 81 GHz are very common nowadays. For realizing various applications like pre crash, collision warning or blind spot detection, available sensors provide distance, velocity and angle information of traffic objects. Scenarios like weakly reflecting objects in presence of nearby strong reflectors (e.g. a person standing close to a van) are very demanding in terms of radar systems angular resolution. In this contribution, possibilities to improve the angular resolution by increasing the operating frequency are discussed. Investigations of certain constraints with a focus on permittivity measurements of materials at 77 GHz and 150 GHz are presented. Further calculations of relevant parameters, like the atmospheric attenuation and system considerations concerning the operating frequency range are shown. Finally, an antenna concept at 150 GHz is presented demonstrating the benefits of high resolution radar for cars.

 

 

WMI-8  Automotive Radar Components as Enablers for (Semi)-Autonomous Driving


Sergio Palma Pacheco; Freescale Semiconductor, Safety Systems - Analog & Sensors Group Tempe, AZ, USA


Ever since the advent of the seat belt, safety has become a key differentiator in the automotive industry. This trend continued with airbags, anti-lock braking systems, and now with stability control. Although these systems have been pervasive for the past 20 years, the number of accidents and fatalities in the US has remained steady. The next step on the road towards greater safety in automobiles is the use of active sensing for collision avoidance. ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) are now a reality with automotive radar being a central component of such systems. As the Assistance part of the ADAS component becomes ever more pervasive and integrated into the car, a path towards (semi)-autonomous driving can be envisioned. This talk will cover current solutions and future implementations of autonomous driving; their shortcomings and challenges, as well as how automotive radar components can play a key role in solving those. It will discuss the technologies needed from a component as well as system level to be able to achieve such (semi)-autonomous driving capability.

 

 

WMJ

Session: WMJ

Measurement-based Modeling in SI Applications

Chair:

 Mike Resso, Keysight Technologies

Co-Chair:

 Heidi Barnes, Keysight Technologies

Abstract:

 : Signal integrity may sound simple, just design an interconnect so that a receiver can hear the transmitter. The physics has long been theoretically proven and the expectation is that any engineer can design the interconnect. Throw in the complexity of low cost, low power, mass production multi-layer laminate structures with high density 3-dimensional connectors at microwave frequencies and suddenly the pristine physics of Ohms Law at DC or even Maxwell's Equations for AC are no longer a perfect design solution. The solution to this problem can be found in measurement-based models.
This workshop brings together leading academia and industry engineers to explore the latest in measurement-based modeling technology to improve the accuracy of both measurements and simulations at multi-gigabit data rates. Learn how the top four signal integrity challenges of losses, discontinuities, skew, and crosstalk can be accurately modeled and measured for answering design questions. The workshop will get insight from academia on how measurement-based models can quickly ramp engineers up on the physics that matters for a given high speed interconnect design. Leading chip designers, connector manufacturers, and PCB fabricators will demonstrate the importance of driving simulations to match measurements. Then they will discuss the direct benefits that they are seeing in successful applications of new standards like the rapidly expanding PAM4 technology.

 

 

WMJ-1

Ten Important Consistency Tests for S-parameter Measurements or Simulations


Dr. Eric Bogatin; Adjunct Professor, University of Colorado Boulder


It's easy to push the button and get S-parameter measurements from a VNA. It's hard to get measurements that are artifact free. Even then, it's sometimes difficult to know what is real or artifact. In this talk, I will present a collection of ten important observations that should be done on any measured S-parameter file to check the quality and consistency of the data. While most of the examples involve 4-port measurements on differential pairs, many of these tests can be applied to 1-port and 12-port measurements. These tests can be done on any touchstone file, measured or simulated.

 

 

WMJ-2

Measurement Based Modeling for PCB Material Properties


 Chudy Nwachukwu; Isola Group USA


An in-depth understanding of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) materials and their packaging in multi-layer configurations has become critical for Signal Integrity design as data rates increase beyond 10 Gbps. To understand these micro-scale PCB effects, this presentation discusses skew induced by prepreg/laminate glass weaves and attenuation due to conductor adhesion roughness. The optimal selection of PCB materials to mitigate these high speed signaling barriers and shorten product development cycles will be illustrated by correlating EM simulations to measurements from application-specific test vehicles. Ultimately, PCB packages have to be re-engineered at reasonable costs to enable next generation requirements of 28+ Gbps interconnects.

 

 

WMJ-3

How to Successfully Measure and Model Electronic Packages for SI


Rick Sturdivant; MPT Corporation


Very often the key to a successful package development is achieving the required signal integrity. This is true for analog and high speed digital circuits. These applications require high levels of confidence in the agreement that will be achieved between simulation and measured data. This workshop session will present methods and procedures that can be followed to increase the likelihood of agreement between models and measurement of packages such as QFN, leadless carriers, and ball grid arrays. The highlight of this session will be the "The Seven Keys for Successful Electronic Packages and Signal Integrity." This session will be useful to both managers leading teams and to practicing engineers who are responsible for electronic packaging at millimeter-wave frequencies and high speed systems to 100Gb/S and higher.

 

 

WMJ-4

Challenges Facing Simulation and Measurement of PAM4 56Gb/s SI


Chad Morgan; Tyco Electronics


In upcoming signaling standards, such as those from OIF and IEEE, there is growing momentum for using PAM-4 signaling at 56 Gbps over electrical channels. In order to fully exploit the advantages of PAM-4 signaling, a new measurement and simulation eco-system must be established and validated. This presentation will show 56 Gbps measured data from high-density, low-crosstalk interconnect channels in order to validate PAM-4 simulation results from both traditional and statistical simulators. This study should verify simulation parameters such as jitter metrics and equalization techniques that are specific to PAM-4 signaling.

 

 

WMJ-5

Circuit Design Simulation Enhanced by Interconnect Topology Characterization


Dennis Newmeyer; Intel Corporation


This presentation outlines a methodology used by a few Intel Analog Circuit Designers to enhance their high speed I/O circuit simulations referencing customer-like interconnect topology models. The methodology, used to generate models for multi-gigabit serial I/O transmission, enables circuit designers to optimize circuit design parameters to meet industry specifications for SAS, SATA, and PCIe high speed I/O protocols in customer reference designs. The interconnect models are generated by using a range of low to high frequency signals to characterize customer-like boards, cables, and connectors. Implementation of this novel methodology improves high speed I/O PHY performance in customer applications.