The 2015 International Microwave Symposium (IMS2105) features a number of Focus and Special Sessions.

Focus Sessions will highlight emerging technical topics that are gaining importance and may be of significant interest to the microwave community.  These can encompass a wide range of topics that may include a specific emerging technology or may cover several technologies that are relevant to a common application.  Special Sessions are formed to recognize events of historical significance to the microwave community as well as highlight the technical achievements in a specific technical area, application or geographical region of the world.  Special Sessions may also recognize the life work of an MTT member by honoring their technical and/or service contributions to the microwave community.   They may also encompass some select emerging technical areas. 

In addition, this year we are having an Honorary Session to recognize Tatsuo Itoh's 40 years of service to MTT-S in addition to a Young Professional Discussion Forum.

IMS2015 Honorary Session

Tatsuo Itoh Serving the MTT-S ADCOM for 40 Years

This session celebrates and honors Professor Tatsuo Itoh’s long and dedicated service on the Administrative Committee of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society. Tatsuo Itoh received the Ph.D. Degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Illinois, Urbana in 1969. He worked at several universities and companies including the University of Texas at Austin and the University of California, Los Angeles where he is currently Professor of Electrical Engineering and holder of the Northrop Grumman Endowed Chair. He was elected as a member of the National Academy of Engineering in 2003. In 2014, he was inducted to the National Academy of Inventors as a Fellow. Dr. Itoh is a Life Fellow of the IEEE. He has a long and impressive service record. He served as the Editor of IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques from 1983 to 1985. He was President of the Microwave Theory and Techniques Society in 1990. He was the inaugural Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters from 1991 through 1994. He was elected as an Honorary Life Member of MTT-S AdCom in 1994.

Young Professional Discussion Forum

Awaken the Entrepreneurial Genius in You!

This forum features speakers that are entrepreneurs in the field of engineering sharing their experience on building a successful company. They will highlight how their background i.e. academia, industry, etc. and experiences influenced their viewpoint and/or choices they made along the way. It includes a panel discussion exploring the need, challenges and rewards of successful engineering entrepreneurship including how some of these barriers can be avoided and/or overcome. Please see the IMS 2015 website for the panel details.

IMS 2015 Special Sessions

Special Tribute Session for Professor John R. Tucker

Prof. John R. Tucker generalized microwave mixer theory to include photon-assisted tunneling and discovered new effects leading to quantum-noise-limited millimeter-wave receivers. This theory is best known as the Tucker Quantum-Mixer Theory. The new phenomena predicted by his theory permitted essentially noiseless amplification of incoming signals during heterodyne down-conversion, a process that was previously thought impossible for resistive mixers. The experiments of other researchers on superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junctions confirmed this non-classical behavior. The quantum mixer theory revolutionized millimeter and submillimeter wavelength radio astronomy through development of SIS tunnel junction receivers operating near the fundamental limit of sensitivity for coherent receivers set by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. SIS receivers are currently installed on all major millimeter and submillimeter astronomical telescopes. Two key examples are the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile, which started operation in March 2013 as one of the world’s largest scientific instruments, and a suite of submillimeter SIS receivers flown in space for the first time as a part of the Herschel Space Telescope, launched in 2009 by the European Space Agency. This session will provide an overview of SIS quantum mixers and will give examples of the impact SIS mixer technology has had on the radio astronomy community. It will describe the development of the highest frequency (THz) SIS receivers and reproducible heterodyne receivers for large-scale radio interferometry and SIS receiver arrays.

Women in Microwaves Special Session: On the Leading Edge of 5G Technology and Beyond

The session will include 5G emerging technology talks on the technical areas relevant to the MTT community. All the papers in this special sessions will be presented by women in microwaves leading the development in those areas.

The Evolution of Power Amplifiers: History, Innovations and Challenges I

This focused session will tract the developments and technical innovations of power amplifier developments over the years. Transistor developments will be presented describing the various semiconductor elements used in power amplifiers from Silicon to Gallium Nitride leading to higher power, efficiency and frequency operation. The history and various circuit innovations will be presented including wideband amplifier techniques, push-pull amplifier developments, power amplifier combining, and network synthesis of matching circuits.

The Evolution of Power Amplifiers: History, Innovations and Challenges 2

This focused session will tract the developments and technical innovations of power amplifier developments over the years. The popular Doherty power amplifier's history will be presented including examples of implementations employing a range of modern semiconductor transistor and circuit technologies. History and state-of-the-art in large signal modeling for RF/Microwave Power Amplifier development will be presented. Modern digital communication use efficient complex digital modulation standards which places stringent requirements of the power amplifier. To meet these requirements various linearizers will be presented including a detailed discussion of digital pre-distortion with future challenges

Celebrating the 150th Anniversary of Maxwell’s Equations

As Einstein observed, “One scientific epoch ended and another began with James Clerk Maxwell.” Clerk Maxwell first published what we today call Maxwell’s equations in the Transactions of the Royal Society in January 1865. This session celebrates the 150th anniversary of that publication with a review of the events leading up to and following that momentous publication. Inspired by the work of Ørsted, Faraday, Ampère, and many others, Maxwell’s equations form the basis for our entire field. Maxwell’s work, in turn, inspired and enabled the development of quantum theory, relativity, and, indeed, all of modern physics. Newton said, “If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.” Maxwell is our giant.

Advances in Small Satellite Technology Development

Low cost access to space or ride to orbit by piggybacking cubesats or small-satellites as a secondary-payload on a major launch vehicle is a disruptive innovation that will enable a host of new applications and unforeseen global space-business that will contribute significant technological advancement. In order for the above disruptive innovation to succeed and become a game-changer, several new technologies have to be developed and matured. This session will focus on applications of this emerging space technology in various domains including telecommunication spacecrafts, satellite navigation, remote sensing, radar imaging, earth observation, weather forecasting etc. Considerations for low cost rapid design, manufacturing and testing of components with embedded radio frequency (RF)/microwave electronics and sensors that form the complex structural elements of a cubeSat or small-satellite (micro- and nano-satellite) for the above applications will be presented. In addition, enabling technologies such as 3-D printing/additive manufacturing techniques will be presented.

Ambient RF Energy Harvesting and Transfer

Energy harvesting (EH) technologies, and particularly RF energy harvesting constitutes an exciting and very promising solution towards a completely batteryless wireless sensor operation, which could provide a critical technological foundation for numerous state-of-the-art applications ranging from healthcare, smart skins and medical implants, to smart homes, security and space. Despite recent research efforts, numerous questions exist as to whether it is possible to harvest enough ambient RF power, what is the maximum practical harvester efficiency, what are the challenges for the realization of broadband/multiband harvesters and how the combination of EH with WPT could enable the rollout of the first real-world applications relying purely on batteryless/cableless operation. The focused session brings together specialists in the field of RF energy harvesting, and aims to show recent circuital, technological and system advances addressing the aforementioned challenges.

Microwave Research and Development in Latin America

The aim of this session is to open a discussion forum for researchers and engineers who work in the various fields of microwave engineering and science in Latin America. The session includes descriptive and technical presentations, by research groups in different areas of Latin America, aiming at conveying the activities in the fields of RF and Microwave Engineering which are currently underway in the region.

IMS2015 Focus Sessions

100 Gbps Wireless Technologies

Increasing demands for information access and networking are driving requirements for communications systems towards data rates of 100 Gbps and beyond. In applications from long-haul point-to-point links to short-range vehicular communications, significant advances in technology are currently being developed to enable such high data rates. Approaches from millimeter-wave electronic systems to broadband millimeter-wave photonics are being investigated, each with relative benefits and challenges. This focus session will present recent advances in technologies for 100 Gbps wireless communications.

Advances in THz Nanoelectronics

RF/THz nanotechnology represents an emerging branch of nanoscience with the potentiality to introduce unprecedented breakthroughs in microwave, millimeter-wave and THz devices and systems. As there is little doubt that RF/THz nanoelectronics will play a major role in the advancement of microwave technology in the forthcoming decades, this area represents a major opportunity for MTT-S. MTT-S is best placed to apply and extend its wealth of expertise towards the analysis, the modeling and the design of nano-structured devices and systems. The goal of this Focus Session is to provide to MTT-S attendees a glance on the state of the art of some of novel nanotechnology-based concepts, devices, systems, with an emphasis on the most significant and intriguing achievements in the THz frequency range. The program includes authoritative speakers chosen among worldwide recognized scientists, coming both from the academia and the industry. These speakers have made pioneering contributions to THz nanoelectronics, and will present some of their advances in the overall context of most recent developments around the world. Their contributions include:   i) the analysis of nano-plasmonics and plasmonic terahertz optoelectronic devices as potential way to compact and low-cost terahertz sources/detectors;   ii) novel concept THz imagers and spectrometers based on nanostructured semiconductors and graphene devices;   iii) the introduction of an innovative graphene-based rectifier, operating @200 GHz;   iv) nanoscale single-metal integrated antenna-thermocouple structure, aimed at terahertz and infrared detection, combining IR radiation, Joule heating, and the Seebeck effect.   A further contribution is going to be defined.

Enabling Technologies for Mobile Communications beyond 6GHz

With increased interest in using higher frequencies for mobile communication many questions remain unanswered. These questions range from debates around optimal frequency band, cellular vs. non-cellular, how the wireless changes with increased frequency and the power efficiency of radios, and how phased arrays can play a role to not only overcome the increased propagation loss but also increase the spectral efficiency by enabling simultaneous spatial links. This session will shed light to these subjects from both radio and communication angles to help generating some consensus as well as demonstrating the latest achievements intended for use in such communication systems.

Low-Noise Receivers for Remote Sensing of Earth’s Atmosphere from Small Satellites

Millimeter-wave remote sensing of the Earth’s atmosphere is feasible from small satellites due to the achievability of reasonable antenna beamwidths that meet spatial resolution requirements of atmospheric measurements even with limited aperture sizes on the order of 10 cm. The rapid advance of InP MMIC technology for millimeter-wave amplification has enabled miniaturization of low-noise receivers while also providing major reductions in power consumption, both critical features in small satellites with very limited resources. Satellites with low-noise microwave receivers and technology developments presented in this session demonstrate both present capabilities and future possibilities. These low-cost systems show the feasibility of constellations of remote sensing satellites, such as NASA’s Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) Earth Ventures mission to be launched in 2016 and discussed in this session.

Advances in Non-Foster Networks and their Applications

High interest evidenced by the growing number of published papers on non Foster circuits and their applications has brought about several different approaches to realizing stable broadband non-Foster circuits. This special session will detail recent advances in the modeling, linear and nonlinear stability analysis, and realization of these circuits that have led to successful implementations of non-Foster circuits for a variety of applications.

Components for Adaptable Front Ends for Military Applications

Today’s tactical environment is putting higher demands on network capacity and optimal use of limited spectrum in a congested spectrum environment. Adaptive, tunable and reconfigurable systems which can dynamically respond to constantly changing environments are the key for meeting the needs of the tactical environment to perform simultaneous functions including communications, electronic protection, SIGINT, Position Navigation Timing etc. This session will focus on advances in technologies which enable the implementation of tunable, adaptable and reconfigurable frontend hardware which can be used for tactical radios. The focus will be on techniques which are waveform agnostic and enable operations in a wide frequency band independent of the spectral and electromagnetic environment. The session intends to present reconfigurable RF front-ends covering wide frequency ranges capable of identifying, receiving and/or transmitting multiple waveforms. Issues such as electromagnetic interference mitigation as well as size weight and power considerations will be presented.


Session: SSA

Dynamic Power Supply Transmitter Design


Earl McCune; Panasonic Technology Fellow (ret.), RF Communications Consulting


Dynamic power supply (DPS) transmitters (DPST) are an increasingly attractive option for achieving bandwidth and high overall energy efficiency when high peak-to-average-power-ratio (PAPR) signals are used. This short course presents the first unified presentation of the various DPST options: envelope tracking, polar modulation, and hybrid combinations of these. All concepts are tied to transistor characteristic curves, ultimately allowing independent evaluation of which transistor types are most appropriate for particular operating strategies. A detailed look at the new interface in DPS transmitters, the connection between the DPS and the RF Power Amplifier, is presented




Course outline/learning objectives


In spite of longstanding clear definitions, the operating principles of DPST circuits remain widely misunderstood. Following this course, attendees will understand the actual circuit operation modes and their differences for envelope tracking and polar DPST implementations, and how these are opposite ends of widely different circuit behaviors. Special RF power amplifier design requirements for application in any DPST are presented. A new system interface, between the DPS and the RF power amplifier, is examined and seen to have inherent instabilities when conventional design techniques are used.



  • - Introduction to DPST
  • - Overview of the DPS transmitter class options
  • - RF power amplifiers as full 3-port circuits
  • - Three PA operating modes when operated as a 3-port
  • - Four definitions of gain; which diverge when amplifiers are compressed
  • - DPS architectures and their properties
  • - RF PA design: additional requirements for 3-port operation
  • - A concise definition of 'knee voltage' and its application to 8 transistor types
  • - Power Supply noise Rejection (PSR) Boundaries For Transistors
  • - The new interface between the DPS and the RF PA
  • - DPS profiles and hybrid DPST modes
  • - New DPST distortion mechanisms and their characterization
  • - Linearization needs and limits
  • - Overall energy efficiency comparisons vs. linear operation




Session: SMA

Near Field Probes: Useful Tools for RF/Microwave Engineers


- Atturo Mediano, University of Zaragoza


Engineers and designers in RF/MW fields are usually very interested in EMI/SI topics because they are fully related in their fundamentals, instrumentation and design techniques with the high frequency design and troubleshooting problems they experiment (suffer) in lab ("EMI/RF black magic") or in production work (EMC).
They usually need to solve that problems in short time, under stress and by trial and error because of the time and cost budgets of today development processes.
In that situation, electric and magnetic near field probes are very useful and valuable tools. With near field probes we can "see" magnetic and electric fields, find EMI sources, evaluate cable layouts, test shielding materials or enclosures, tune circuits in a "non invasive" way, find RF spurs or look for structural or parasitic resonances in components and circuits.
The simple ideas, hardware demos and practical examples presented in this course will be very useful for attendees that cannot be considered EMI/EMC specialists but have a good RF/MW knowledge and interest.




Course outline/Learning objectives


1. Commercial vs. homebrew near field probes (NFPs).
What is a NFP?. Near vs. Far fields. Building a near field probe. Commercial NFPs including near field scanners.

2. Basic Near field probes and instrumentation.
NFPs with scope (time domain).
NFPs with spectrum analyzer (frequency domain).
NFPs with spectrum analyzer and tracking generator.
NFPs with spectrum analyzer, tracking generator and VSWR bridge.
NFPs with network analyzer.
NFP scanners.
NFPs with other instruments.
Autonomous and other modes of operation.

3. Near field probe techniques.
NFPs: testing emissions vs. testing immunity.
How to use a near field probe:

  • - with components and materials,
  • - with circuits and printed circuit boards,
  • - with cables,
  • - with rack and enclosure design.

4. Real world examples.

NFP demonstrations and practical examples.
This part is intended to show examples (real world problems) solved with near field probes. Real probes and demos with simple hardware, schematics, photographs and videos will be used as necessary. Answers to individual questions from attendees related to individual design problems.


Main goal of the course is to introduce knowledge on near field probes and to review the different techniques to use them in the RF/EMC practical design and troubleshooting work.
The attendees will be able to know the basics of electric and magnetic near field probes, the principles of working with them including useful frequency range and shielded vs. non shielded versions.
Both homebrew and commercial near field probes are presented from the smaller models to test at the pin level to modern scanners to test complete boards.
The attendees will understand how to use a near field probe with different instruments including oscilloscopes, spectrum analyzers (with and without tracking generator), Voltage Standing Wave (VSWR) Bridges, network analyzers and other special tools. Once the combination of the probe and the instruments is understood they will be able to see how to apply techniques to typical design and troubleshooting high frequency systems from the component and material level, through the PCB design (including slots in ground planes), shielding and cable analysis and evaluation. Both emissions and immunity techniques will be considered.
They will be able to see some examples of probes, hardware demos and some real world cases where the instructor found the probes useful.



Session: SMB

Theory and Design of Phase Locked loops


- Lama Dayaratna Ph.D., Lockheed Martin Commercial Space Systems, United States


- Peter White Ph.D., Applied Radio Labs, Australia


- Cicero S. Vaucher Ph.D., NXP Semiconductors, Netherlands


- Ron Reedy Ph.D., Peregrine Semiconductor Corporation, United States


- Patrick Walsh, Analog Devices, Ireland


- Dean Banerjee, Texas Instruments, United States


This is an interactive short course where the fundamentals of design, analysis, and modeling of phase lock loops will be covered. This one day short course will present the theory, design, and latest techniques for the design of low noise frequency synthesizers. This course is designed to be rigorous where appropriate, while remaining accessible to engineers without a specific background in frequency synthesizer design.

Technological achievements during the last decade or so in communications have resulted widespread use of phase locked loop circuits. New manufacturing technologies have also been developed to reduce the cost of such circuits. This laboratory/hands-on course will provide a state-of-the-art review of frequency synthesizer circuits from a design and development perspective. During this one-day session participants will have access to hardware and software demonstration 'set- ups' for ease of understanding phase locked loop and frequency synthesizer design concepts.

The application of PLLs in RF/microwave systems will also be highlighted by a series of presentations by industry experts. Examples will be given including real-time demonstrations to a variety of problems relevant to the design of frequency synthesizer circuits.




Course outline/Learning objectives

This is a state-of-the-art review of phase locked loop circuits from a design and development perspective, and will provide a learning environment for recent graduates as well as for all engineers with varying backgrounds.




Session: SFA

A Hands-on Approach to Spectrum Regulation for Innovative Microwave Engineers


- Michael J. Marcus, Virginia Tech


This course is for microwave engineers who are developing new systems that need either routine or nonroutine regulatory approvals. For better or for worse, radio technology is more regulated than most technologies in IEEE-related fields so some knowledge of regulations is key to timely implementation of innovative technologies. The course will address how to tell which issues are routine or not and review the steps needed for approval in each case in terms of time and resources required. It will show what to consider in terms of seeking outside help for various steps and how to identify possible resources. Using the US spectrum regulatory system as an example it will review the various international rules, national laws, and national regulations that may have to be considered – depending on the technology involved.




Course outline/Learning objectives

  • - History of spectrum policyGoals of spectrum policy
  • - ITU Radio Regulations – a treaty document
  • - Basic US radio laws
  • - FCC regulation of private sector and local governments
  • - NTIA regulation of federal spectrum use
  • - Impact on wireless innovation
  • - Spectrum allocations
  • - Radio service rules
  • - Equipment authorization
  • - RF safety regulation
  • - Experimental licenses
  • - Waivers for new technology – limitations
  • - Requesting rule changes
  • - Estimating time and resources needed for seeking regulatory actions
  • - Examples of recent spectrum controversies and lessons learned



Session: SFB

The Dynamics, Bifurcation, and Practical Stability Analysis/Design of Nonlinear Microwave Circuits and Networks


- Professor Almudena Suárez, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain


- Dr. Christopher P. Silva, The Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, California


This course addresses stability in nonlinear microwave circuits and networks (NMCNs), covering concepts, qualitative analysis, simulation, and engineering design. The many unique qualitative behaviors/effects possible in common NMCNs will be illustrated, including the fundamental bifurcation phenomenon that marks an abrupt change in qualitative behavior. Attendees will learn about different steady-state solutions, identify instability problems through small- and large-signal stability analysis, and understand the most common bifurcations. Primary stability analysis approaches will be presented/compared; ranging from the familiar (e.g., Rollet factor, stability circles) to the advanced that can be implemented via classical harmonic balance methods. Practical examples of instability, stability analysis, and stabilization design will be presented for such NMCNs as power amplifiers, frequency multipliers/dividers, and voltage-controlled oscillators. Other advanced topics include stability analysis for modulated signals and coupled oscillators. Finally, the long-term harnessing of nonlinear dynamics for engineering purposes will be surveyed. The course features video/hardware demonstrations of bifurcation and nonlinear qualitative behaviors, as well as several live, ADS-based stability analysis sessions.




Course outline/Learning objectives


  • Why this course? — Motivation for dynamical system perspective and formal stability analysis/design approachesGentle introduction to classical dynamical systems (linear and nonlinear) — definitions, classifications, transient and steady-state behaviors (dc to chaos), bifurcation, stability concepts and properties
    • - Linear vs. nonlinear qualitative behaviors and phenomena
    • - Showcase illustrations of inadequate stability analysis/simulation/design
    • - Traditional microwave circuit stability analysis and its application limitations
  • Fundamentals of harmonic balanceFundamentals of stability analysis, stability analysis in time and frequency domain
    • - Formulation, resolution method, continuation techniques
    • - Limitations with autonomous systems, requirement for a complementary stability analysis of the solution
  • Stability analysis in small- and large-signal regimes
    • - Perturbed harmonic-balance system, characteristic system
    • - Practical techniques for stability analysis, pole-zero identification
    • - Application examples
  • Global stability analysis with bifurcation detection/gallery
    • - Practical bifurcation detection with examples
    • - Instability contours and applications
    • - Analysis of hysteresis phenomena
    • - Prediction of chaotic behaviour
  • Stabilization and bifurcation control with illustrative power amplifier and oscillator examples
  • Stability analysis in presence of modulation
    • - Envelope-transient method
    • - Extension of stability analysis methods to circuits containing modulated signals
  • Stability analysis/design for multiple oscillatory modesEngineering exploitation of nonlinear dynamics
    • - Circuits with and without symmetries
    • - N-push oscillators
  • Live video/hardware/simulation demonstrations
    • - Spectrum-analyzer-based diagnostics for bifurcations and unstable behaviours (video)
    • - Bifurcations and chaos in Chua's oscillator (hardware)
    • - ADS-based simulation laboratory on nonlinear stability analysis (interspersed throughout course)



The first objective of the course is to develop a good comprehension of the most common instability phenomena in nonlinear microwave circuits and networks. The second objective is to provide practical simulation tools for an efficient prediction of these phenomena at the design stage. The outcome will be the capability of the designer to identify common types of undesired solutions and primary bifurcations in simulation and measurement, with a basic understanding of the mechanisms behind these phenomena. The attendants should also come to more formally understand the concepts of stability and the foundations of stability analysis in small- and large-signal regimes. They should obtain sufficient knowledge for the application of stability analysis techniques to their own nonlinear circuit designs. An important advantage of the techniques presented in this course is that they can be readily implemented and applied by current users of commercial harmonic balance simulation tools. Specifically, these techniques can be used in a supplementary manner without requiring an in-house program but only the evaluation of some functions that are extracted from the commercial tool. Overall, the attendee of this course should come away with the formal knowledge and set of systematic, yet practical techniques needed to develop robustly stable nonlinear designs based on a more complete and formal understanding of their possible dynamics.



Session: SFC

Flexible 5G mmWave Waveform Testbed and Active Device Characterization


- Greg Jue


- Suren Singh


Millimeter wave (mmWave) radio access is one of the most disruptive physical layer technologies being proposed for the fifth generation (5G) wireless communication technology, and the industry now has a much better understanding of the challenges and solutions for implementing radio access technology in the mmWave bands from the experience gained with 60 GHz technologies including Wireless HD and 802.11ad (WiGig). In those bands, where directional antennas are required, frequencies and bandwidths also dictate new approaches to PHY layer design and circuit implementations. Some of the waveforms being investigated may include wideband waveforms, with possibly up to 2 GHz of modulation bandwidths. All of these introduce new challenges for early 5G researching engineers, especially from the signal generation and analysis point of view. This short course will describe a new flexible testbed for 5G waveform generation and analysis which can be used to investigate and to perform "what-if" scenarios for new emerging 5G waveform applications. Co-existence scenarios between emerging 5G waveforms and legacy waveforms such as LTE will be investigated. Wideband signal generation and analysis case studies will be shown, both at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies, with modulation bandwidths up to 2 GHz. Amplitude and phase corrections of wideband waveforms will be considered and examined. In addition, this short course will help the engineers understand the architecture and features of a vector network analyzer (VNA) that enables the measurement of performance of active devices at mm-wave frequencies. The last part of the course will introduce examples of making gain compression, mixer measurements and spectrum measurements using a VNA, and will provide a measurement example for a 60 GHz WiGig application to help the engineers get an idea how to characterize an active device at the mmWave frequencies.




Course outline/Learning objectives


  •  Two presentations will be delivered during this short course
    • - Flexible 5G mmWave Waveform Testbed for wideband signal analysis and generation by Greg Jue of Keysight Technologies
    • - Active mmWave Device Characterization by Suren Singh of Keysight Technologies
  • This short course will examine Millimeter wave (mmWave) physical layer technologies proposed for 5G, focusing on wideband mmWave signal generation and analysis as well as active device characterizations. The presentations will introduce the mmWave technologies in 5G, and will also examine them in the context of system-level design, simulation, and test in order to help the early 5G researching engineers solve their mmWave design and test challenges. Specific examples of topics covered include: modeling advanced multi-carrier digital modem and signal processing, flexible 5G mmWave waveform testbed for wideband mmWave signal analysis and generation, and measurements on millimeter wave active devices.



To help the engineers see and solve the mmWave design and test challenges for their 5G researches, especially for both wideband signal generation & analysis, and active device performance characterization at mmWave frequencies.



Session: WMA

Direct Extraction of FET Circuit Models from Microwave and Baseband Large-Signal Measurements for Model-Based Microwave Power Amplifier Design


Patrick Roblin, The Ohio State University


David E. Root, Keysight Technologies


Leveraged by the availability of nonlinear vector network analyzers (NVNA), the efficient extraction of circuit-based FET models including memory effects directly from large-signal microwave measurements is now possible and has been successfully demonstrated. There is now a comprehensive body of work published on this emerging topic. This workshop will bring together many of the world experts in this field to present the results already demonstrated by this new approach and outline the outstanding challenges remaining ahead. This workshop will start with a review of the progress in the field, and include tutorials on key extraction topics. The focus of this workshop is to report on advanced techniques for the extraction and validation of circuit-based device-models using large-signal microwave measurements with NVNAs. Model-based nonlinear embedding design technique that enables efficient power amplifier (PA) designs starting from a desired intrinsic PA mode will also be reviewed as an emerging application.

As wireless communication keeps expanding and various RF front end technologies are competing for these new markets, continuing challenges are arising for the development of circuit-based device models for power microwave field-effect transistors (FET) that are able to predict the device performance under realistic large-signal operating conditions. Specifically, device models must account for the actual device response when the FETs are excited by modulated RF communication signals exhibiting a high peak to average power ratio. Under such conditions some memory effects such as (1) self-heating and (2) traps in GaN HEMTs, which are intermittently activated by high instantaneous voltages, are observed to profoundly modify the device performance at low average power.
Circuit-based device models based on a physical topology remain of great importance as they provide the means to monitor the load-lines at the current-source reference planes in order to verify the transistor's mode of operation in power amplifiers (PA). They also play an essential role in the promising model-based nonlinear embedding design technique that enables efficient design starting from a desired intrinsic PA mode. However, reasonable, accurate and realistic models are required for successful model-based PA design. Given the high peak to average power ratio of modern RF communication signals, various low-frequency memory effects (self-heating, trapping) are known to be excited by intermittent high instantaneous voltages at peak power. These memory effects can in turn substantially modify the subsequent response of the device under large-signal operation at average power. Much effort has been placed in finding new ways to efficiently characterize and model these effects. This includes direct model extraction from (1) modulated large-signal microwave measurements with NVNAs and (2) various low-frequency large-signal measurement techniques. This workshop will review these various advanced measurement and modeling techniques for the efficient extraction of realistic transistor models as well as present examples of application to power amplifier design.




Direct extraction of nonlinear FET IV and QV functions from time-domain large-signal measurements

Paul Tasker; Cardiff University, Cardiff UK

This presentation will provide a background review of how the IV and QV state function behavior can be extracted directly from large signal waveform measurements. It will start with a basic introduction to large signal waveform measurements: a system that can measure the time varying terminal voltage and current waveforms present on the transistor when excited by a user controlled stimulus at all ports. The extraction of the transistors IV and QV state function characteristics from this data will then be reviewed. The talk will conclude by discussion on how these extracted characteristics can be used in the state function based non-linear transistor CAD models.




Parasitic extraction and the intrinsic-element bias-dependence of GaN devices

Apolinar Reynoso-Hernandez; CICESE, Baja de California, Mexico

Power amplifiers based on AlGaN/GaN HEMT devices require accurate nonlinear equivalent circuit models. The development of these nonlinear models needs reliable methods for extracting the parasitic bias independent elements, as well as, the intrinsic bias dependent elements. Thus, a good extraction of the parasitic elements along with a suitable topology leads to reliable extraction of the intrinsic transistor and therefore to accurate nonlinear models. This lecture is focused on different methods for extracting the parasitic elements, as well as the bias dependent intrinsic elements from S-parameters measurements under pulsed IV condition of devices fabricated in a GaN process. Moreover, the aim of the lecture is to show a step by step guide for determining the parasitic and intrinsic elements of the equivalent circuit model. The talk will conclude with an introduction of a neural network approach to compute the drain current source and the charge storage characteristics of the device from the measured intrinsic admittance parameters.




Extraction of FET nonlinear models by the dynamic-bias measurement technique

Dominique Schreurs; K. E. Leuven, Belgium

This talk deals with the development of transistor nonlinear models based on nonlinear measurements. The advantage of identifying nonlinear models under realistic operation has to be balanced with instrumentation costs and limitations (e.g., bandwidth, power). In this context, the exploitation of low-frequency nonlinear measurements represents an interesting and reliable alternative. A recently proposed measurement technique, i.e., the dynamic-bias, which allows combining the advantages of low- and high-frequency instrumentation, will be covered in detail. In particular, its application to the modeling of GaN and GaAs transistors will be discussed.




Extraction of ANN model for SOS MOSFET from real-time active-load-pull measurements

Patrick Roblin; The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH

This lecture will start by presenting an example of the extraction of nonlinear model for an SOS-MOSFET including memory effects using a single real-time active load–pull (RTALP) measurements. The efficient phase sweeping of the RTALP drastically reduces the number of large-signal measurements needed for the model development and verification while maintaining the same intrinsic voltage coverage as in conventional passive or active load–pull systems. Memory effects associated with the parasitic bipolar junction transistor (BJT) in the SOS-MOSFET are accounted for by using a physical circuit topology for: 1) the intrinsic FET current–voltage characteristics; 2) the intrinsic charges of the FET; and 3) the BJT dc characteristics, all from the same modulated large-signal RF data. The bias dependence of the charges and IV characteristics are modeled using an artificial neural network (ANN). The verification of the model is performed for load-lines, output power, power efficiency, and load–pull measurements, which are obtained using two additional independent RTALP measurements. The application of this extraction method to the modeling of memory effects in GaN will then be discussed. The importance of self-heating and the cyclostationary charging of traps in GaN HEMTs under large signal RF operation will then be reviewed.




Advanced GaN and GaAs transistor evaluation and transistor modeling using combined small- and large-signal VNA & NVNA microwave measurements

Iltcho Angelov; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

This lecture will discuss procedures to characterize advanced GaN and GaAs microwave FET transistors and extract Large-Signal Equivalent Circuit Models (LS ECM) from these transistors. Devices are evaluated using small- and large-signal VNA & NVNA microwave measurements. The idea of (LS ECM) consists of linking important SS and LS model parameters directly to experimentally measured (or TCAD) data. These are: IV, Capacitances & derivatives at important, characteristics, inflection points in IV, S-parameters, Harmonics and LSVNA waveform data. Selecting, correct definitions that follow from device physics will reduce the number of parameters and measurements needed for model fitting. The LS ECM model extraction procedure is speeded this way. The important model parameters are directly connected with measured or TCAD calculated data, so, when needed, LS model parameters can be calculated directly from device physical parameters. The resulting model is compact, converging well in the simulations and easy to understand and extract. A short description will be given how the EC models are constructed and implemented in the CAD tools. Modeling flow will be shown, staring with direct extraction of important device, model parameters. Examples of larger-signal models of GaN, GaAs transistors will be discussed. Special attention will be paid on the modeling of GaN HEMT devices.
The quality of these new advanced devices is improving, devices are used at much higher frequencies, and the uniformity and repeatability of on-wafer measurements is becoming very good. This introduces very stringent requirements on the quality, accuracy, repeatability of the measurements. These issues will be also discussed.




NVNA-based artificial neural network (ANN) model generation for III-V FETs including traps and thermal memory effects: DynaFET

David E. Root; Keysight Technologies, Santa Rosa

NVNA waveforms, applied using an active-injection characterization system, are used to directly identify a detailed large-signal III-V FET simulation model that includes both trap dynamics and thermal memory. The measurement-based modeling flow includes advanced neural network (ANN) training to represent the electrical constitutive relations and their nonlinear dependence on electrical, thermal, and trap state variables. Fundamentals of the model generation (extraction) methodology will be presented, and the approach contrasted with several others. Comprehensive large-signal validation results from a wide variety of III-V devices will be reviewed.




Self-heating and trap characterization and simulation for large signal GaN transistor modeling

Raymond Quéré; XLIM Institut de Recherche, Limoges, France

GaN Field Effect Transistors are providing breakthrough performances for microwave Power Amplifiers (PA). However they still suffer from parasitic effects coming from self-heating and traps which severely impact their large signal behavior when fed by complex modulated signals. Thus a careful characterization and modeling of these effects is mandatory to evaluate their impact on the performances of a microwave subsystem. Different sets of measurement and simulation methods, which enable precise characterization of the low frequency dynamics (LFD) of the devices, will be described. They lead to the definition of nonlinear models which take into account both the LFD and the microwave behavior of the transistors in a coupled way which allows explanation and quantification of most of the memory effects observed in large signal measurements.




Characterization of Dynamic Intrinsic Cells for Scalable FET Circuit Models

Antony Parker; Macquarie University, Sydney

Large FETs operating with large signals drive nearly all the dynamic aspects of memory, temperature, and charge storage, so a model needs to consider a fairly complete picture of a dynamic system. The access manifolds to a large multi-fingered device embeds this dynamic system in a passive electrical and thermal network. De-embedding measurements provides a scalable intrinsic cell that models the FETs dynamics and non-linearity. A model for any large, unseen, device can then be extrapolated by scaling the cell and embedding it in a passive access network model.
The key enabler for modeling is the extraction of the intrinsic characteristics that are dispersion free parameters and scale without offset. These are fitted to large-signal current and charge models that use a trans-impedance in lieu of transit delay or intrinsic resistance. It is the enclosing dynamic system, which includes trapping, breakdown and thermal responses that accounts for the observed dispersion in small-signal data.
The extraction of trapping and thermal dynamics is readily carried out with pulsed-IV measurements. Test plans that capture the extremely large changes in trapping rates with bias and temperature provide data to fit elegant sub-circuit models for trapping and heating. These sub-circuits establish state variables that account for the dispersion and memory in the overall FET characteristics.
State variables driven by the memory processes account for the bias offset between integrals of small-signal characteristics and dc characteristics. Consequently, the full large-signal model is useful for all applications including low-noise small-signal and stability assessments. One model, all geometries, all applications!




Session: WMB

Terahertz-wave Wireless Communications


Ho-Jin Song, NTT Device Technology Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Japan


Jae-Sung Rieh, Korea University, Korea


The terahertz-waves exhibit various interesting unique properties such as the high absorption in water and the high transparency over paper, plastic, clothes, etc. as well as their correspondence to many molecular absorption lines and no harmful ionization effects on biological tissues. Because of these properties, the terahertz-waves have been attracting growing interests among scientific and engineering communities for possible adoption in various application fields such as imaging, spectroscopy, security, and so forth. Another recently emerging application that is more directly related to our daily life is the adoption of the terahertz-waves for broadband wireless communication, which exploits the much wider bandwidth available with the terahertz band compared to the traditional microwave and millimeter-wave bands. With the terahertz wireless communication systems, it is envisioned that extremely large throughputs of 100 Gbps or more will be available in the near future. The objective of this workshop is to provide a current snap shot on this exciting topic to MTT-s members by reviewing the recent progress in the terahertz wireless communications, ranging from the terahertz transceivers in various device technologies, successful demonstration of the tens of Gbps data transmission, up to the standardization activities in IEEE/ITU-R. The workshop will also provide related discussions on the pending technical issues and future research directions in this field. To meet the purpose of this workshop, world-wide authorities from North America, Europe, and Asia in the various fields of high frequency ICs and systems as well as the communication theory and standardization are invited and will run this exciting full-day session.




InP‐based TMIC Development for Terahertz Wireless Communications

Sanggeun Jeon; Korea University, Korea

In this talk, a recent development of InP-based TMICs for THz wireless communications will be presented. First, the design methodologies for circuit building blocks of THz transceivers, including a low-noise amplifier, power amplifier, up/down mixer, VCO, and other passive components, are provided along with the measurement results. Then, 300-GHz integrated heterodyne receiver and transmitter that employ on-chip fundamental LO and mixers will be presented. By comparing the experimental results with other state-of-the-art THz transceivers, the pros and cons of the proposed fundamental architecture will be discussed. Finally, several other TMICs that are essential for THz beamforming or wideband communication, such as phase shifters and distributed amplifiers, will also be introduced.




850 GHz wireless link demonstration using InP HEMT

William Bill Deal and Kevin Leong; North Grumman Corporation, USA

This talk describes development of an 850 GHz chipset using InP HEMT transistors with a maximum frequency of oscillation above 1.0 THz. This allows LNA and PA to be incorporated into the receiver and transmitter, and demonstrate a receiver noise figure of approximately 12 dB with a maximum output power of 0 dBm. The system is used to pass data over the air to demonstrate applications at 850 GHz. This talk will include a description of the component development, an overview of receiver and transmitter performance, and a description of the data link experiment.




Photonics technologies for terahertz communications

Tadao Nagatsuma; Osaka University, Japan

Introduction of photonics technologies for signal generation, modulation and detection is very effective not only to enhance the bandwidth and/or the data rate of THz communications, but also to combine fiber-optic (wired) and wireless networks. In addition, photonics-based approach is expected to bring such ultra-high data rate THz communications technologies to potential users and to meet and explore real-world applications at the earliest opportunity as a technology driver. In this talk, we discuss practical approaches to achieving real-time error-free THz wireless communications using photonics technologies, and show some of our on-going results towards a data rate of 100 Gbit/s.




Terahertz communications at 300 GHz for KIOSK data downloading system

Ho-Jin Song; NTT Corporation, Japan

For future wireless communications systems to be able to accommodate the needs of users, it is obvious that more spectral resources are necessary. From this point of view, despite several drawbacks of terahertz (THz) waves, such as the poor output power and sensitivity of THz emitters and detectors, respectively, the THz wave band above 275 GHz, which has not been allocated for specific use yet, is very attractive, especially for short-distance applications.
In 2011, a consortium that includes Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT), FUJITSU LIMITED, and the National Institute of Information and Communication Technology (NICT) was formed to investigate fundamental technologies for using the new spectral resources in the THz frequency band in future wireless communications systems. In the five-year plan, the project has been seeking the development of THz electronics based on InP-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) and the packaging of the devices for simple THz communications systems operating at 300 GHz over a distance of 1 meter or less. We are also investigating test and measurement technologies and the basic characteristics of propagation channels at these high frequencies and plan to build a test-bed system based on the usage scenario for Kiosk data downloading, which is capable of operating at the peak data rate of 20-40 Gbps with simple ASK modulation scheme. In this talk, the recent results of the research project will be overviewed and the limitations and challenges at THz frequencies will be discussed.




240 GHz wireless communication system operating at up to 100 Gbps

Ingmar Kallfass; University of Stuttgart, Germany

A directive fixed wireless link operating at a center frequency of 240 GHz allows to carry out single-input single-output data transmission with up to 100 Gbit/s. A point-to-point outdoor experiment achieves a data rate of 64 Gbit/s over a transmission distance of 850 m using QPSK and 8PSK modulation. For medium range applications up to 100 m, data rates of 96 Gbit/s have been demonstrated. In combination with an optical transmitter, a data rate of 100 Gbit/s was achieved. This workshop contribution presents the current system, discusses its limitations, and highlights some of the prospective and required developments for further performance improvements.




Pushing CMOS to New Terahertz Heights

Ali. M. Niknejad; University of California, Berkeley, USA

This talk will highlight several projects that aim to push CMOS technology into new application domains that require ultra-high speed connectivity and miniature components. The focus will be on a 240 GHz high data rate transceiver for chip-to-chip communication and energy levels approaching wired and optical links, enabling new form factors for future devices, and eliminating package pins and traces on the PCB. The 65nm prototype design includes on-chip antennas, a mixer-first receiver, high efficiency power amplifiers, frequency triplers, and an injection locked LO chain. Nearly all the essential components of the transceiver are realized in an integrated chip to demonstrate both the potential and the energy efficiency of CMOS technology in > 100 GHz links.




Towards Wireless 100 Gb/s for Switched-Point-to-Point Links

Thomas Kürner; Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany

In the most recent years, wireless communication networks have been facing a rapidly increasing demand for mobile traffic along with the evolvement of applications that require data rates of several 10s of Gbit/s. In order to enable the transmission of such high data rates, two approaches are possible in principle. The first one is aiming at systems operating with moderate bandwidths at 60 GHz, for example, where 7 GHz spectrum is dedicated to mobile services worldwide. However, in order to reach the targeted date rates, systems with high spectral efficiencies beyond 10 bit/s/Hz have to be developed, which will be very challenging. A second approach adopts moderate spectral efficiencies and requires ultra-high bandwidths beyond 20 GHz. Such an amount of unregulated spectrum can be identified only in the THz frequency range, i.e. beyond 300 GHz. Systems operated at those frequencies are referred to as THz communication systems. In March 2014, the task group 3d (TG3d) has been established, which works on an amendment of 802.15.3 targeting 100 Gbit/s for switched point-to-point links. Applications of interest are wireless data centers, wireless backhauling/fronthauling, point-to-point close-proximity communication including kiosk downloading and intra-device communication. This talk will give an overview on ongoing standardization activities at IEEE 802.15 as well as the corresponding research activities.




Terahertz band: Next frontier for wireless communications

Josep Miquel Jornet; University at Buffalo, The State University of New, USA

In recent years, wireless data traffic has exponentially grown due to a change in the way today's society creates, shares and consumes information. This change has been accompanied by an increasing demand for higher speed wireless communication. Wireless Terabit-per-second (Tbps) links are expected to become a reality within the next ten years. Towards this aim, Terahertz (THz)-band (0.1-10~THz) communication is envisioned as a key wireless technology to satisfy this demand. The THz band will help to overcome the spectrum scarcity problems and capacity limitations of current wireless networks, by providing an unprecedentedly large bandwidth. In addition, THz-band communication will enable a plethora of long-awaited applications both in classical networking domains as well as in novel nanoscale communication paradigms. In this talk, an in-depth view of THz-band communication networks is presented. First, the challenges in the design and development of THz-band devices are surveyed. The existing limitations and possible solutions in the design of high-speed THz-band transceivers, broadband antennas and dynamic antenna arrays are highlighted. Then, the fundamental research challenges and future research trends in terms of channel modeling; physical layer design, including bandwidth-adaptive modulation, real-time channel coding, and massive MIMO transmission schemes; and, link layer solutions, including error, flow and medium access control for THz-band communication, are outlined in a bottom-up approach, defining a roadmap for the development of this next frontier in wireless communication.




Experimental progresses on terahertz fronthaul for future mobile systems, and regulatory issues related to ITU-R

Iwao Hosako; Norihiko Sekine; Akifumi Kasamatsu; Atsusi Kanno; Tetsuya Kawanishi and Hiroyo Ogawa; National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, JAPAN

Drastic increase in mobile data traffic will require much more bandwidth in wireless communications. However, the spectral resources are extremely limited because of the heavy use of today's conventional frequency range up to 60 GHz even with spectrally highly efficient quadrature amplitude modulation(QAM) and the spatial diversity achieved with multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) technology. Terahertz frequency band (THz; 0.1-10THz) is the promising candidate for a new-generation wireless communication technology because of their broad available bandwidth. Recently, many research and development projects has focused on the above-mentioned frequency bands, because the high carrier frequencies promise unprecedented channel capacities (e.g. 100 Gbit/s). This presentation overviews the future direction of terahertz wireless technologies and technical challenge of terahertz fronthaul for future mobile systems, including projects on device technologies being funded by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC, JAPAN), wireless system experiments at National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), and standardization time line at the International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunications Sector (ITU-R).




Session: WMC

Micro and Nanowatt Smart RF Transceiver ICs for Internet of Things


Gernot Hueber, NXP Semiconductors, Austria


R. Bogdan Staszewski, University College Dublin, Ireland


Over the last years more and more application of lowest power RFICs are evolving, while at the same time advancements on technology level, as well as on design perspective enable radios for Internet-of-Things solutions. However, those impart unique challenges on the RF-transceiver design with the design goals of lowest power consumption, size and costs that are attractive for mass market applications.
Scaled CMOS on the one hand features the possibility for implementing all RF and control functionality of an Internet-of-Things solution directly on a single IC, on the other hand it shows poor performance in RF circuits compared to other technologies.
The focus of this workshop will be on the challenges RF transceiver design and architectures in low-power RFICs in CMOS, along with a thorough discussion of advanced techniques for receivers and transmitters towards integration with a microcontroller in a SoC. Approaches include novel architectures, low-power analog circuit blocks, and digitally assisted and enhanced analog/RF modules.




Low-Power 60-GHz CMOS Radios for Miniature Wireless Sensor Network Applications

David Wenztloff; University of Michigan, USA

Complete wireless sensor nodes have recently been demonstrated with volumes in the cubic-mm range. Supporting long range wireless communication in this form factor requires a combination of low power circuits, but-level duty cycling, and high frequency to reduce the size of passives and the antenna. This talk will describe recent work on 60GHz radios for ultra-low power, mm-scale sensor nodes, including measured results from radios with fully integrated antennas and architectures amenable to these small form factors.




Low-power sub-GHz RF transceivers for E-metering

Melina Apostolidou; NXP Semiconductors, The Netherlands

The Internet of Things (IoT) and Smart Utility Networks (SUNs) pose a challenge for the industry, namely to develop flexible and affordable hardware/software solutions for connecting devices with disparate power, Digital Signal Processing (DSP) capacity, price, and range requirements. New standards favored by recent products are the sub-GHz ZigBee and Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) IEEE 802.15.4g, meant to address operation in the 169–960 MHz ISM bands. Exact requirements are region-dependent and influenced by modulation schemes and data rates. We propose a low-power System-on-a-Chip (SoC) RF transceiver with integrated microcontroller and EEPROM for sub-GHz SUNs. It features FSK/GFSK modulation with data rates up to 200 kbps, draws approximately 12 mA in receive mode and is fabricated in 0.14-μm CMOS technology. Its integrated PA provides up to +14 dBm output power, which can be increased to +27 dBm by means of an external booster, without violating emission requirements. This makes the transceiver fit for robust, long-range communication in difficult environments (e.g., dense urban areas). In this tutorial, we focus on the design and implementation of the frequency synthesizer, called to address the ISM-bands and a variety of modulation schemes with the required modulation bandwidths, while having best-in-class phase noise and low side-band spurs with low power consumption.




Low Power Oscillators for Ultra Low Power RF

R. Bogdan Staszewski; University College Dublin, Ireland

Power consumption of an RF oscillator has traditionally comprised a large power budget fraction of a wireless transmitter and receiver. With the recent trend in scaling down the transceiver power, the oscillator contribution is actually expected to rise. At a low enough power, in the range of 100's of uW, a typical oscillator would simply stop resonating. Furthermore, the oscillator circuitry, which relies on large inductive components, is typically not amenable to technology scaling, so its figure-of-merit performance is expected to worsen. Hence, there is a strong need to invent new oscillator topologies for ultra-low power operation. This seminar presents an overview of these issues and offers some suggestions.




Low-Power Design Techniques for a Bluetooth Low Energy SoC

Hiroki Sakurai; Toshiba Corporation, Japan

Recently, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has been widely used in low power equipment. To extend the battery life of the equipment, a power reduction of BLE SoCs is especially important. In this tutorial, we are going to present several low-power techniques for our SoC products, in which both low power operation and sufficient performance for practical use are required. To achieve long battery life, power reduction in both active and sleep modes are indispensable. Some RF design techniques to achieve practical RF performance with low power consumption are also going to be presented.




Ultra-low power Phase-domain RF Transceiver Design for Short-range WPAN/IoT Standards

Yao-Hong Liu; Holst Centre/IMEC, The Netherlands

Ubiquitous wireless sensors connected through cellular devices are becoming widely used in everyday life, e.g., wearable healthcare monitoring. An ULP RF transceiver is one of the most critical components that enable these emerging applications, as it can consume up to 90% of total battery energy in a remove wireless sensor node. Furthermore, a low-cost radio design with an digital-intensive RF architecture is an important catalyst for developing such applications. In this tutorial, the applications and the requirements of ULP radio for different WPAN/WBAN standards will be discussed. Several low-power phase-domain transceiver architectures (e.g., PLL-based transmitters, phase-domain receivers) will be introduced. A design example with a 2.4GHz sliding-IF receiver with a phase-to-digital converter (SIF-PDC) for Bluetooth Low Energy/IEEE802.15.4 standards will be presented.




Session: WMD

Emerging and Silicon Technologies for Bio-sensing from RF to Millimeter-wave Frequencies


Arnaud Pothier, XLIM


Dietmar Kissinger, TU Berlin


Mehmet Kaynak, IHP Microelectronics


Electromagnetic fields from low to millimeter-wave frequencies are presenting lots of interests for biological and medical applications. Indeed the possibility of non-invasively investigation on living cells at a very small scale stimulates currently a large research activities and technological developments. This workshop will consequently address the most promising current advances in microwave and millimeter-wave technologies dedicated to detection, sensing, control and analysis on micro/nano-scale bio-sample applications, focusing on all silicon integrated on a chip approaches and also on emerging technologies that address single cell characterization and detection of bio-molecules in tiny concentration.




Silicon Based CMOS Integrated Microfluidic Platform for THz-Sensing Applications

Mehmet Kaynak; IHP Microelectronics, Germany

The growing interest on the electrical detection of biological cells stimulates the research community for novel techniques to increase the sensitivity and miniaturize the systems. However, the major obstacle so far to miniaturize the overall systems is the requirement of combining different modules of the systems; such as microfluidic channels, sensor and control/read-out CMOS electronics. In order to obtain miniaturized and smart system, all these modules need to be integrated, if possible on the same chip. Regarding the sensing methods, dielectric permittivity measurement of biological cell suspensions has been used for decades to characterize cell parameters and has been extensively studied. However, the high frequency responses of bio-samples are of great interest to research community which is expected to open the way for many different detection techniques.
In this talk, we present a novel fully CMOS integrated microfluidic channel technology for bio and medical applications. The main benefit of the integrated microfluidic devices is the significant increase of the detecting process and the analyses on the same silicon chip, using CMOS circuitries. We also propose to use the developed microfluidic platform to realize an oscillator at mm-wave frequencies with integrated sensor and microchannels to characterize the concentration of cell species in a suspension.




CMOS Flow Cytometry Using Microwave Electric and Magnetic Measurement Techniques

Ali Niknejad; Jun-Chau Chien; Pramod Murali; Bernhard Boser; University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA

Rapid cell identification using microfluidics and CMOS technology has the potential to reduce costs and testing time, and perhaps enable point of care diagnostics. In this talk, two approaches will be highlighted. In the first, magnetic beads act as markers and detected by using the change in magnetic coupling between an on-chip transformer driven at an RF on chip VCO. In the second approach, the dielectric constant of cells is measured directly without the use of markers by using an interferometric capacitance measurement techniques at microwave frequencies.




Magnetic Sensing and Spectroscopy using Magnetic Nano-Particles

Ali Hajimiri; Hua Wang; Stephen Chapman; Costis Sideris; and Alex Pai; California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA

In this talk we will exploit the opportunities and challenges posed by the unique characteristics of magnetic sensing modality for genomics and proteomics sensing. We will discuss CMOS-based magnetic sensors and several of their variations enabling state-of-the-art sensing techniques for DNA and proteins. We will discuss the new exciting prospects of magnetic spectroscopy and investigate the sensing trade-offs in such platform via several practical solutions.




Broadband RF/Microwave Complex Dielectric Spectroscopy Systems in CMOS

Kamran Entesart; Masoud Moslehi; Ahmed Helmy; Osama El-Hadidy; Sheirf Shakib; Hajir Hedayati and Samuel Palermo; Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

This talk presents two different approaches to realize integrated complex dielectric spectroscopy systems for a broad RF/Microwave frequency range using 0.18 um CMOS process. These systems can be potentially employed for chemical and biomedical sensing applications.
In the first system, a capacitive sensor exposed to the material under test (MUT) shows variations in its admittance according to the complex permittivity of MUT. The sensing capacitor along with a fixed capacitor forms a voltage divider excited by an RF signal at the sensing frequency.
The magnitude and phase of the voltages across the two capacitors are measured using a quadrature downconversion architecture to find the real and imaginary parts of the MUT's permittivity. At the lower frequency end, the system is configured as a direct-conversion architecture with 3rd and 5th harmonic-rejection to alleviate the problem of harmonic mixing and improve the sensitivity. On the other hand, at the higher frequency end, the system works as a dual-downconversion topology and employs a sub-harmonic mixing technique to reduce the required input clock frequency span.
The second system utilizes a ring oscillator-based phase locked loop (PLL) for wideband complex dielectric spectroscopy of materials under test (MUT).
Characterization of both real and imaginary MUT permittivity is achieved with frequency-shift measurements between a sensing oscillator, with a frequency that varies with MUT-induced changes in capacitance and conductance of a delay-cell load, and an amplitude-locked loop (ALL) - controlled MUT-insensitive reference oscillator.




Highly Integrated Microwave and Millimeter-wave Analyzers for Emerging Biomedical Microsystems

Dietmar Kissinger1,2,3; 1IHP, Frankfurt (Oder), Germany, 2TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3FAU Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany

This talk presents ultra-broadband highly integrated read-out circuits and biosensors in the microwave and millimeter-wave domain using a low-cost silicon-germanium technology. The first single-chip microwave design features a scalable octave bandwidth architecture including signal generation circuitry. The second fully integrated design achieves a bandwidth of 50-100GHz enabling highly miniaturized broadband sensor readout applications in the area of biomedical sensing. Furthermore, both presented designs facilitate a complete single-chip integration of the overall readout system and the sensing element in standard silicon technology.




Microwave biosensors dedicated for label-free discrimination of cancer cells

Arnaud Pothier1; L.Y. Zhang1; C. Dalmay1; A. Landoulsi1; J. Leroy1; P. Blondy1; A. Lacroix2; C. Mélin2; F. Lalloué2; S. Battu2; M.O.Jauberteau2; C. Bounaix Morand du Puch3; C. Lautrette3; S. Giraud3; 1XLIM Research Institute, 2Homéostasie cellulaire et Pathologies 3Oncomedics, Limoges, France

This talk will discuss about the great potential of high frequency dielectric micro-spectroscopy for biological cell analysis and discrimination. We will especially introduce an original analysis method based on resonant micro-sensors operating at microwave frequencies allowing the intracellular dielectric properties characterization of sample up to single cells. Based on the specificity of fixed or living biological cell electromagnetic signatures, the developed microwave biosensors have allowed addressing some promising biological issues in cancer research. Hence, we will show that such approach, without requiring any cell labelling, could be helpful to early inform on potential cell aggressiveness degree as an indicator of the tumor development or in the frame of cell differentiation process to evaluate the cell maturity degree. In this talk, we will especially discuss about the latest electromagnetic characteristics we had obtained on immature cancer cells using high frequency dielectric micro-spectroscopy and development of new microfluidic microwave-sensors.




Tunable Radio Frequency Interferometers for the Detection and Analysis of Molecules in Solutions

Pingshan Wang; Yan Cui; Zheng Wang; Zhe Chen; Yongzhi Shao; ECE Clemson University, SC, USA

In this talk will be presented the design and test of highly sensitive radio frequency (RF) interferometers that are tunable from 10 MHz to 38 GHz. Among others, DNA-water solutions (with pBluescript (SK+) and pET21a (pE) DNAs) as well as glucose-water solutions, are used for interferometer testing. It is shown that the interferometer can detect ~ 10 fg of DNAs in a ~ 1 nL volume. At the same time, broadband and quantitative measurements can help identify molecular compositions of a 3-components solution. Furthermore, filters and resonators are demonstrated to significantly improve interferometer sensitivity. The results show that the interferometers are promising to be a powerful tool for many applications.




Fast, Compact and Label-Free Microwave Detection of Single Cells

Cristiano Palego1; Y. Ning2; C. R. Multari2; X. Ma2; X. Cheng2; J. C. M. Hwang2; A. Denzi3; C. Merla3; F. Apollonio3; M. Liberti Sapienza3; 1Bangor University, Bangor, United Kingdom, 2Lehigh University, United States, 3University of Rome, Italie

Broadband electrical detection has reached the level of sensitivity and reproducibility required for single-cell detection. Further, simple analysis of the data collected using a novel microchamber confirms that microwave signals can penetrate through the cell membrane to probe the properties of cytoplasm. However, for broadband electrical detection to have more general-purpose uses such as in intracellular probing and in separating different pathogens, even better sensitivity and reproducibility are required. This requirement can be met with further refinement of the test setup and protocol so that the detailed properties of subcellular structures can be reliably de-embedded from the broadband data. Additionally, advanced microwave sensing approaches can be pursued basing on present technologies and by integrating off-chip RF tuning modules, for background drift compensation, and on-chip microfluidic antennas, for wireless data transfer/monitoring.




Microwave dielectric spectroscopy of human single cells

Katia Grenier1; David Dubuc1; Francois Artis1; Tong Chen1; Mary Poupot2; Jean-Jacques Fournié2; 1LAAS-CNRS, 2CRCT, Toulouse, France

Microwave and millimeter wave dielectric spectroscopy is a powerful technique for non-ionizing and non-destructive material characterization. Therefore, its development for the analysis of the living at the molecular and cellular levels is very attractive for biological researches and biomedical applications, where non-invasively, label-free and contact-less abilities as well as in-liquid measurements constitute important leitmotivs.
The talk will focus on the single cell characterization in their liquid culture medium. Issues in terms of broadband and narrow band measurements, sensitivity, repeatability with standard deviations and real time monitoring of measurements will notably be highlighted on human tumorous single cells.




Session: WME

Emerging Systems, Methods, and Applications for Microwave and THz Imaging


Sherif Sayed Ahmed, Rohde & Schwarz, Munich, Germany 


Amin Arbabian,Stanford University


This workshop aims to introduce emerging applications and technologies in the area of microwave, mm-wave, and THz imaging. Experts will present their work on state-of-the-art systems for advanced imaging solutions in security, industrial, navigation, as well as medical domains. Our focus will be on end-to-end systems that combine new algorithms and methods with actual imaging demonstrations. The workshop will address new applications and areas of interest in light of emerging hardware capabilities, both in terms of high-frequency front-ends and arrays as well as post-processing and computation. 




Combing active and passive terahertz imaging systems for security

R. Appleby1; H. Petersson2; S. Ferguson3; 1Innovasec Ltd., UK, 2FOI, Sweden, 3School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The Queen's University Belfast, UK

Within the European commission Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), the project CONSORTIS (Concealed Object Stand-Off Real-Time Imaging for Security) will design and fabricate a stand-off system operating at sub-millimeter wave frequencies. This system will scan people as they walk by the sensor. The aim of the project is to produce a system which has a high probability of detection, low false alarm rates, is non-invasive and respects privacy.
This presentation will describe the top level system design which brings together both passive and active sensors to deliver the necessary performance. The passive system will operate in two bands between 100 and 600GHz and will be based on a cryogen free cooled focal plane array sensor whilst the active system will be a solid-state 340GHz radar. This will maximize the probability of detection and reduce false alarms. A 'systems engineering' approach has been adopted with performance modelling being used to develop the system specifications. These models will be used to show the phenomenology in both the active and passive regions and also to illustrate the trade-offs necessary to realize such a system.
A modified version of OpenFx is used for the passive system and SE-RAY-EM for the active system. Both of these tools are capable of rendering imagery which is electromagnetically correct and accounts for the properties of the sensor. Furthermore this imagery can be animated as in the real system and can be used to develop anomaly detection algorithms.




THz-Videocam – a passive sub-millimetre wave video camera for security Applications


Torsten May1; Gabriel Zieger1; Detlef Born1; Solveig Anders1; Hans-Georg Meyer1; Erik Heinz2; 1Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology, Germany, 2Supracon AG, Germany

"THz-Videocam" is a passive security camera which visualizes sub-mm wavelengths using superconducting bolometer arrays. In the intended market it has to compete with established near-field millimeter-wave scanners which use active microwave techniques. Comparing both concepts, a cryogenic sub-mm video camera constitutes a complementary solution to a conventional near-field scan because of its unique feature to perform a stand-off scan with a useful spatial resolution – an ability which is almost out of reach for millimeter-wave technology. Therefore, a sub-mm wave camera could be used in a variety of application scenarios beyond the obvious airport screening, ranging from the protection of buildings (e.g. embassies) to safeguarding public events.
Against the background of existing solutions, our camera will be analyzed in terms of achieved performance and its practical use. The reported current generation was designed to demonstrate stand-off capability whilst achieving a background-limited performance. It is able to record videos with 25Hz frame rate, using a linear array of up to 128 superconducting bolometers in combination with an opto-mechanical scanner. The necessary cooling of the detector array is provided by a commercial pulse tube cooler. For imaging, a 100cm class optics is used which is able to resolve approximately 1.7 cm objects from 20 m distance. For a flexible installation, the object distance can be tuned manually between 10 and 40m.




Imaging Radars Above 180 GHz for Security and Science

K. Cooper; G. Chattopadhyay; R. Dengler; C. Jung; C. Lee; I. Mehdi; T. Reck; and J. Siles; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, USA

Radars operating above 180 GHz offer measurement capabilities that are difficult or impossible to achieve at more conventional microwave or millimeter-wave bands. These include sub-centimeter range resolution, milliradian-scale angular resolution, detection of very small target motion, high sensitivity to submillimeter-size particles and surface roughness, and spectroscopic tunability over important molecular absorption lines. This presentation will review the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's development of hardware components (including THz transceiver arrays and low-loss duplexing), system architectures, and measurement methods for radars operating at 183, 220, 340, and 680 GHz. While security screening imaging radars will be emphasized, emerging scientific applications of mapping small-particle dynamics and measuring humidity using differential absorption spectroscopy will also be discussed.




Automotive Radar chipsets: An overview, requirements and technological challenges & trends

Nader Rohani; Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.,USA

The objective of this presentation is to provide the attendee with an overview of the Millimeter wave Automotive Radars, current status and future trends. In doing so we will be presenting the Automotive Radar Applications and requirements. We will be covering Architecture, implementations and technology choices with their trade-offs and respective challenges. Given the specific requirements for automotive products , We will be discussing the challenges of designing highly integrated , cost effective/high reliability millimeter wave Radar products in large volumes.




Millimeter-Wave Imaging form Security to Non-Destructive Testing Applications – Possibilities & Challenges

Sherif Sayed Ahmed; Rohde & Schwarz, Munich, Germany

Microwave imaging technology with millimeter-waves has proved efficient in addressing the requirements of various security applications, e.g., personnel screening. This extends to cover advances in the HW integration as well as the signal processing techniques involved. The technological capabilities of active scanning with wide-band signals in real-time operation is highly attractive for non-destructive testing (NDT) applications as well. However, the migration of security imaging systems towards NDT applications is not trivial, as many adaptations and customizations are to be performed. Additionally, imaging through electrically thick objects requires on one the hand a high signal dynamic range to cope with the wave propagation losses and on the other hand adequate reconstruction algorithms for proper focusing inside the material volumes. Both are challenging to the HW realization and the signal processing methods. In this talk, an overview on an advanced imaging solution with multistatic array operating in the W-band designed to serve in the security domain is made, and hence followed by a discussion on the possibilities and the associated challenges to utilize this technology into the NDT domain.




Millimeter Wave Radar Imaging for Security and Industrial Applications

Nils Pohl & Dirk Nuessler; The Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques (FHR)

Nowadays, modern semiconductor technologies allow to highly-integrate multi-channel Radar sensors in the mmWave regime at moderate cost level, which enables imaging sensors in transmission or reflection setups. Therefore, a new technology for object detection and material classification in industrial process environments (in-line), as well as for security purposes is around the corner. Due to the demands for high spatial resolution, frequencies around 100 GHz and even higher are mandatory, which is still a challenging task for cost-efficient technologies.
This contribution addresses the underlying circuit technologies as well as the application environments. On circuit level, sensor concepts up to 240 GHz for radar operation will be presented and finally various application examples of microwave imaging for solving real problems in the field of plastic recycling, security envelope scanning and in inline production environments will be given.




Contrast-enhanced microwave breast imaging

Susan C. Hagness; University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA

The potential of using of non-ionizing microwave-frequency electromagnetic waves to sense or image the dielectric properties of human tissue has captivated the interest of engineers and clinicians alike. Tissue dielectric properties are influenced by endogenous polar molecules, and as a result, convey useful clinical information about water content, protein content and hydration, angiogenesis, blood flow alterations such as ischemia and infarction, and temperature changes. Tissue dielectric properties can also be influenced by exogenous molecules, such as tumor-targeting nanoparticles, introduced as contrast agents. This workshop presentation will provide a general overview of microwave medical imaging techniques and will highlight recent progress in microwave imaging technology for contrast-enhanced breast cancer detection.
Measurement systems designed for full breast imaging use a number of remote sensors (e.g. antennas) to transmit low-power microwave signals into the breast and measure the scattered fields. The inverse problem that must be solved to reconstruct the dielectric properties distribution throughout the breast is highly ill-posed, and thus the solution is extremely sensitive to the quality of the measured data. A microwave inverse scattering algorithm with sparsity regularization has been recently developed to detect and image breast tumors with contrast enhancement. The performance of this technique has been demonstrated for simulated array measurements acquired from 3D anatomically realistic numerical breast phantoms and for experimental data acquired from anthropomorphic physical breast phantoms using an imaging system comprising a shielded, enclosed array of miniaturized patch antennas, a vector network analyzer, and a switch matrix.




RF- Acoustic Hybrid Imaging Techniques for Medical and Security Applications

Amin Arbabian; Stanford University, USA

Conventional medical imaging modalities (MRI, PET, CT) rely on expensive and bulky hardware that limit usage to hospitals and clinics. Large and expensive devices prohibit usage in ambulatory cases or where time-sensitive and on-site diagnosis is critical (e.g., detection of internal hematomas or intracranial abnormalities). In addition to access, safety is a concern with a majority of the imaging techniques. This is especially an issue in applications like cancer screening where frequency of test is limited by concerns with radiation dosage.
This presentation will provide an overview of hybrid imaging techniques that combine RF/Microwave excitation with ultrasound detection to provide high-resolution imaging of dielectric contrast created by hemorrhages or by tumor angiogenesis and necrotic cores. New frequency-domain RF Magneto-Acoustic and Microwave Thermoacoustic imaging techniques will be presented. Imaging results from various dielectric materials will also be outlined. Additionally, a new microwave-ultrasound hybrid non-contact imaging technology that can be used for remote interrogation of hidden/embedded objects in highly dispersive media will also be presented.




Computational and performance trade-offs of super-resolution techniques in FMCW radar

Murtaza Ali; Texas Instruments

Millimeter wave Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radars are often used to localize objects with very high accuracy in range, velocity, and angle estimates. The traditional Fourier based signal processing technique for range and velocity estimation has a theoretical limit on range resolution. They also often fail to detect close by objects with very different radar cross-sections (RCS) even when they are separated by more than this limit. There are well known super-resolution techniques are often used in angle estimation with multiple antenna systems that have been shown to detect and localize objects even when their spacing is less than the traditional limits. These techniques can be extended to range and velocity measurement as well leading to the potential of joint high resolution detection and estimation of range, velocity and angle. However, these techniques require very high computational complexity. In this paper, we will discuss the trade-offs among performance and complexity of these techniques. We will provide case studies of applications where these super-resolution techniques may be beneficial. We will show how super-resolution techniques can be used as a complementary technique on top of traditional Fourier based techniques to focus on areas of interest thereby reducing the computational complexity.




Next-Generation Information-Theoretic mm-Wave Imaging Radar: Theory and Experiments

Upamanyu Madhow1; Amin Arbabian2; 1University of California at Santa Barbara, USA 2Stanford University, USA

It is well known that estimation-theoretic techniques can be used to attain imaging resolution beyond classical Rayleigh-style bounds. In this talk, we discuss two examples of such super-resolution for next-generation mm wave imaging radar with bandwidth and form factor constraints. First, the problem of range estimation of multiple targets, modeled as point scatterers, is recast as one of estimation for a mixture of sinusoids, with resolution limited by estimation-theoretic bounds such as the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound or the Ziv-Zakai bound, rather than coarse measures such as inverse of bandwidth. Second, the degrees of freedom limitations imposed by form factor constraints (e.g., for mm wave radar implemented on a consumer electronics device) are considered, and it is shown that it is necessary to go beyond classical point scatterer target models in order to apply estimation-theoretic techniques. In both cases, we provide super-resolution algorithms that approach estimation-theoretic bounds, using a mixture of ideas from matching pursuit and gradient/Newton style iterations. Our approach is validated on a stepped-frequency continuous wave (SFCW) 60 GHz imaging testbed, where the SFCW waveform is designed so as to avoid the velocity aliasing for classical linear SFCW.




Session: WMF

Application of Waveform Engineering in Design of High Power Doherty PAs


 Justin Annes, Freescale Semiconductor


 David Wu, Freescale Semiconductor


 Since D. Snider presented the concept of waveform engineering in 1967, it has captured the imagination of power amplifier (PA) engineers. However, its use and application by researchers and practitioners in this field has been limited at best due to a number of factors, principally among them being a well-defined design methodology. The goals of this workshop are to bridge this gap and suggest a useful first order approach of applying waveform engineering in the design of high power Doherty amplifiers. Concepts covered include a review and explanation of waveform engineering concepts based on first order principles (for those attendees who are not experts in this field). Following presentations will tend toward more in-depth discussions on focused topics as it applies to high power amplification.
In addition to the technical presentations, the workshop will include a laboratory simulation component where attendees will have an opportunity to explore many of the concepts using software tools in a series of instructor driven and guided mini-projects. This will enhance the interactivity of the workshop by including both presentation material coupled with "hands on" student CAD.




RF I-V Waveform Measurement and Engineering - the unifying link between transistor technology, circuit design and system performance

Paul Tasker; Cardiff School of Engineering

Microwave power amplifier performance, output power, conversion efficiency and linearity, etc., is significantly influenced by the terminal voltage and current time varying waveforms that develop at the transistor terminals; terminal waveforms are the unifying theoretical link between transistor technology, circuit design and system performance. Thus waveform engineering should be a major objective driving the power amplifiers design flow. However, in practice power amplifier design, while waveform engineering may be a guiding principle, the lack of appropriate RF waveform measurements tools has hindered its direct application at microwave frequencies. This is no longer the case, thanks to the development of RF characterization systems capable of both measuring RF voltage and current waveforms while engineering the RF voltage waveforms stimulating all ports; practical RF Waveform Measurement & Engineering solutions are commercially available. This lecture will discuss these emerging systems and show they are now finally enabling practical waveform engineering to be directly undertaken within the power amplifier design flow. Design support can involve either direct utilization of the measurement system in the design investigation/evaluation loop, or indirect use by providing CAD accessible datasets.




Large signal PA design methodologies and why they are all fundamentally flawed

Steve C Cripps; Cardiff School of Engineering

A typical approach to designing a large signal PA is to characterize a device using various measurement techniques and then use that empirical data to design a circuit to achieve performance goals. Load pull, small signal s-parameters and DC-IV measurements are the typical tools of choice to obtain a semi-detailed understanding of how a particular device behaves under certain conditions. These measurement techniques are inherently limited in one way or another, leaving the PA designer to make compromises and assumptions in the design process. S-parameters are gathered under small signal conditions and therefore don't represent the dynamic nature of the device under non-linear conditions. Load pull data can be easy to gather for the fundamental frequency, but harmonic content requires access to extensive resources in the form of expensive test equipment and a significant amount of time. This discussion will cover all the pros and cons of the various characterization and design methodologies and will touch on how accurate models with access to the current generator will provide the best overall approach in terms of time and money for a PA design engineer in the industry.




Creating Models for Waveform Engineering

Kevin Kim; Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.

Accurate, non-linear models are building blocks of a solid design methodology and can reduce time to market and save money for a PA designer in the industry. Models also allow us an unprecedented look into the operation of a device. If one can gain access to the information at the current generator, it will allow for creating a design methodology based in waveform engineering. The evolution and creation of accurate, non-linear compact models will be discussed in this presentation. Additionally, some approaches to identifying or de-embedding the intrinsic device waveforms derived from large signal simulation will be explored.




Validating Models for Waveform Engineering – reconciling measurement vs. simulation

Basim Noori; Apple Inc.

If models are to be depended on to create state of the art PAs, then consistent, accurate validation of those models are a necessity. Validating a model requires typical characterization techniques, but validating to a high level of accuracy requires a highly advanced level of measurement techniques. This presentation will discuss how active, multi-harmonic load pull systems have become the required workhorse for validating models capable of allowing an accurate waveform engineering design approach.




Bridging the gap between fundamental and practical

David Yu-Ting Wu; Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.

RF power amplifier theory is fundamentally built on the intrinsic FET voltage and current waveforms. These descriptions are often simple and mathematically elegant. In contrast, practical RFPA designs often involve significant bench tuning accompanied by an equal amount of empirical guesswork. The large gap between RFPA theory and practice and can be attributed to the lack of access to the intrinsic waveforms as well as an over-reliance on load-pull based design approach.
When an accurate FET model with access to the intrinsic waveforms is coupled with deep knowledge of RFPA theory, an alternative design approach emerges with the potential to extract maximum device performance while reducing design time. In this approach, designers will not only leverage familiar design parameters such as power, efficiency, linearity and gain, but also utilize the intrinsic current and voltage waveforms as part of the design process.
The goal of the presentation is to bridge the gap between the fundamental RF PA theory and the nuisances of practical implementation. Discussion of PA circuit design will include Class-AB, continuous Class B/J modes, Class-F and Doherty PA.



Lab Tutorial – Getting Started with Intrinsic Node Access

Justin Annes; Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.

This lab tutorial will be hands on and use a commercially available product model for the cellular industry to demonstrate how current and voltage waveforms can be manipulated by various matching topologies. We will start with the basic class A/B/C and work through to class f, f-1, D SMPA etc. Participants will be led through each exercise in the CAD simulator. An example of how this modeling approach allows observation of peak transient voltages and how this can be used to design for margin to ruggedness will also be presented.


Lab Tutorial – Waveform engineering a Doherty PA with product model

Rudy Gutierrez; Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.

This lab tutorial will be a hands on and use a commercially available product model for the cellular industry to demonstrate how current and voltage waveforms can be observed to construct a f-1 Doherty amplifier and insure the correct modes of operation are being obtained. The tutorial will step through the process and give the participants hands on experiences using CAD software. Test benches and data displays will be provided and the workspace will be handed out to each participant.




Session: WMG

Antenna and Packaging Technologies for mmWave Front-End Integration



Kevin Xiaoxiong Gu, IBM Research



Millimeter-wave packaging and co-design with integrated antenna is one of the most important aspects of implementing frond-end modules for many emerging commercial applications. This full-day workshop introduces recent research and development of state-of-the-art antenna and packaging technologies. The applications discussed in the workshop cover a wide range of mmWave spectrum, including 28GHz (post-4G phased-array), 60GHz (WiGig and point-to-point link), 77GHz (automotive radar), 94GHz, 120GHz and beyond (radar, imaging, etc.). Nine invited speakers from leading industries and academy in this area around the globe will present their mmWave antenna and packaging work with focus on different substrate technologies, including but not limited to silicon, glass, multilayer organic polymer, RCP (redistributed chip package), eWLB (embedded wafer level ball grid array) and LTCC (low temperature co-fired ceramic).






Advanced Glass and Multilayer Polymer Substrates for WiGig Module Implementation


Telesphor Kamgaing; Intel Corporation


The ISM frequency band around 60 GHz presents a huge opportunity for short range wireless communication with datarate in the order of several Gigabits per second (Gbps). Those data rates are key enablers for applications such as wireless docking, wireless sync-and-go, rapid video downloading, and the display/streaming of uncompressed high definition video. Radio circuits such as amplifiers have the disadvantage that the output power of typical CMOS transistors drops significantly with increasing frequency; hence, it's necessary to combine several amplifiers in a phased array to create signal beams with decent strengths. The CMOS phased array transceiver is supported by antennas that are implemented on a package substrate. Given the low gain of mm-wave on-chip power- and low-noise-amplifiers and the high signal attenuation associated with on-chip interconnects, it's critical that the package exhibit low routing losses and deliver antennas with very high efficiency. This requires a proper combination of material selection, antenna design, substrate design and fabrication. This presentation will discuss some organic and non-organic low loss dielectric material that may be suitable for use at millimeter wave frequencies. In the first part of the presentation, we investigate photodefinable glass both in terms of processing and suitability for mm-wave frequencies. Test structures including through-glass vias, transmission lines and microstrip patch antennas on glass have been fabricated and fully characterized up to 67 GHz. In the second part of the presentation, we will discuss functional phased array modules implemented on multilayer liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrates as well as techniques to improve antenna performance on thin microelectronic package substrates.






Millimeter‐wave IC Antenna co-Integration for Integrated Transmitters and Receivers


Arun Natarajan; Oregon State University


We will focus on challenges and techniques for co-integration of antennas with mm-wave ICs. Small physical size and high resolution in sensors and >10Gb/s wireless links at mm-wave frequencies make it attractive to implement silicon ICs at mm-wave. While there have been several demonstrations of integrated mmWave Tx and Rx arrays, interfacing the ICs to the antenna-in-package(AiP) remains a major cost and yield bottleneck. Multi-Gb/s wireless links and high-resolution imagers are attractive systems to implement in CMOS but they require mm-wave and sub-mmwave arrays to provide power, sensitivity and directivity. Cost and element density in such arrays is limited by the interconnect to the AiP that's typically implemented in LTCC or organic PCB technology. On-chip antennas and proximity-coupled antennas have been proposed but they suffer from efficiencies < 25% and/or bandwidth < 10%, or high complexity packaging. We will discuss a wafer-scale compatible approach for antenna integration with CMOS and BiCMOS ICs that achieves state-of-the-art overall efficiencies and large bandwidths while significantly simplifying packaging and testing complexity. A 60GHz implementation will be presented that demonstrates the feasibility of this approach and applicability to mm-wave ICs in the W-band and beyond.






Advances in Packaging for RF and Millimeter‐Wave System Integration


Maciej Wojnowski; Klaus Pressel; Infineon Technologies AG


We present outstanding developments that emerged in assembly and interconnect technologies for millimeter-wave system integration. Limitations in pin count of standard WLP packages lead to the development of the embedded wafer level ball grid array (eWLB). We demonstrate the outstanding system integration capabilities of eWLB for millimeter-wave applications. We start with 2D eWLB. We show low-loss transmission lines and high-quality (high-Q) planar inductors realized using the thin-film redistribution layers (RDL) of eWLB. The short signal pathways of eWLB result in excellent electrical characteristics up to millimeter-wave frequencies. We present chip-package-board transitions without external matching networks optimized for use at 60/70/80 GHz bands. The use of vertical interconnections and double-sided RDL extend the integration capabilities to the third dimension leading to 3D eWLB. We present the ways of realizing vertical interconnections in eWLB using through encapsulate vias (TEV), through silicon vias (TSV), and novel embedded Z lines (EZL). We show examples of package-on-package modules, surface-mount devices (SMD) integrated on package, and high-Q 3D inductors realized in the volume of the mold compound. Finally we present the concepts of antenna integration in eWLB and show examples of different antenna structures realized in eWLB. To demonstrate the SiP integration capabilities of eWLB, we show 60 GHz and 77 GHz eWLB transceiver modules with integrated antennas.






Multilayer Organic Packaging for Microwave and Millimeter-wave Front Ends


John Papapolymerou; Georgia Institute of Technology


In this talk we will present the most recent advances of multilayer organic technology for mm-wave and sub-mm-wave applications. The three-dimensional System-on-a-Package (SoP) RF front end architecture has been proven to be a very attractive and cost effective alternative to System-on-a-Chip (SoC) and System-in-Package (SiP) technologies. With the advent of high speed silicon based (CMOS, SiGe) and III-V (GaN, InP) mm-wave and sub-mm-wave integrated circuits, there is a need for a flexible yet high-performance and cost-effective integration and packaging platform that can span very wide frequency ranges (from a few GHz to THz) and support multiple application targets. The demonstration of thin organic layers laminated together at relatively low temperatures while allowing the successful embedding of various integrated circuits at mm-wave bands and beyond, has paved the way for this high-performance RF SOP technology. Specific examples ranging from X-band to D-band and from low RF power to high RF power with excellent performance will be presented.






W-band, D-band and THz Silicon Based Passive Imager Array in a Module


Noam Kaminski; IBM Research, Haifa, Israel


Nowadays SiGe BiCMOS technology exhibit high RF performance even at high frequency such as W-band, and D-band and above. This technology enables high mixed signal integration to incorporate the readout circuits and digital interfaces into the RF circuit. This attribute enables the integration of an array of RF receivers to form a passive imaging system at the millimeter-wave frequencies range. The talk will start by describing the millimeter-wave imaging solutions by IBM which incorporates 16 receivers in the same module. Each receiver is composed of an antenna-in-package, connected to the silicon-based receiver, with a low-noise-amplifier, followed by a power detector and a readout circuit. We will shortly describe the silicon solution and performance. The main focus of the talk would be on IBM W-band and D-band packages. These packages are based on antenna pitch on the order of 1λ (airy disc) and therefore can achieve high antenna gain by using horn antenna. The waveguides leading to the horn antenna are embedded in the package, which is based on a low cost and high performance PCB technology. Each package is designed in a tile-like manner, so that they can be assembled one next to the other to form a full imaging system. The talk will conclude with describing the THz imaging solution, which is based solely on silicon technology (package and receiver).



WMG-6  Millimeter Wave Packaging Using LTCC with Embedded Antennas

Hsin‐Chia Lu; National Taiwan University

The short wavelength of millimeter wave makes it possible to realize a wireless communication module with antenna array in the size of a typical IC package in size of few centimeters. By embedding antennas into suitable packaging substrate like low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) and using flip-chip interconnect between die and substrate, a package with minimum loss can be realized. In this talk, we will introduce the fabrication process for LTCC and the design of embedded antennas/arrays by using this multilayer substrate. The multi-layer structure of LTCC allows the creation of antenna structure not just in planar direction but also in vertical direction. The design of sub-circuits inside the die will also be covered.

WMG-7  mmWave Phased-array Technologies for Post-4G Wireless Communications

Wonbin Hong; Samsung Electronics

Exploitation of millimeter-wave frequencies is widely being researched for next-generation cellular applications. Used in conjunction with legacy technologies such as LTE in the form of fall-back, millimeter-wave wireless communication is projected to offer significantly enhanced wireless capacity, spectral efficiency and cell-edge data rates. However, the relatively high attenuation and absorption loss at millimeter-wave will likely cause adverse effects on the EIRP and sensitivity of the transceiver. Consequently, the RF architecture and packaging schematic are subject to major modifications and it is imperative to investigate novel design methodologies focused on increasing the overall efficiency of the RF frontend. In this presentation, we present the major challenges and their ensuing possible packaging solutions in realizing a compact, efficient phased-array front-end module at 28/60 GHz.

WMG-8  Industrial mmW Chipset Enablement Using Low Loss BGA Package and 3D Printed Plastic Lens

Fred Gianesello; STMicroelecetronics

The rapid growth of wireless data drives new design challenges for RF chipset and handheld/mobile device manufacturers along with carriers. The massive data traffic to be supported by wireless networks requires the development of cost effective high speed and low power wireless link (both from end user and network side). To address this challenge, millimeter wave technologies (WiGig standard at 60 GHz, backhauling in E band ...) have emerged as promising solutions in order to offer multi gigabit per second data rate at low power. Moreover, the possibility to integrate those wireless systems using silicon based technologies (either CMOS or BiCMOS) enables to offer cost effective solutions required by both consumer and industrial markets (we can have in mind here the cost constraint related to the deployment of 5G heterogonous network). But millimeter wave technologies do not only require cost effective RF ICs achieved in advanced silicon technologies, high performances and low cost packaging and antenna technologies are also key issues. This talk will provide a review concerning the various technologies (on chip silicon antenna, 3D Si interposer, WLP, HTCC, organic FCBGA, ...) that have been considered in the past years to develop cost effective millimeter wave package and antenna in package solutions. We will then discuss the opportunity to leverage this System in Package approach by using 3D printing technology in order to develop innovative and cost effective millimeter wave system compliant with the requirement of longer distance (up to 2 km) point to point system (that are today required for the backhaul and fronthaul of 4G small cells).

WMG-9  RCP Package Technology and its Application in mmWave RADAR System

Ziqiang Tong; Freescale Semiconductor

Freescale Semiconductor introduced its new packaging technology – redistribution chip packaging (RCP) since 2006. Nowadays, RCP technology has been wildly used in 3G-mobile phone applications, SiP, etc. It reduces the substrate area and removes the bonding wire from the system integration. Recently, Freescale extends the application of RCP packaging to mmW applications—77GHz automotive RADAR chip set. With high flexibility, RCP supports low cost solution for high integration of mmW front-end system. In this talk, I will present the Freescale package technology – Redistribution Chip Packaging and its mmW application.




Session: WMH



 Vittorio Camarchia, Politecnico di Torino



 Marco Pirola, Politecnico di Torino


Roberto Quaglia, Politecnico di Torino



 The increasing demand of higher data rates of mobile communications is deeply affecting the entire network infrastructure, especially concerning the so-called backhaul. Microwave backhaul solutions are expected to become the leading technology in the point-to-point connections. Microwave and mm-wave electronics for backhaul represents a rapidly evolving technical area. This workshop gives a picture of the microwave backhaul scenario, describing its pros and cons with respect to wired solutions, and highlighting the perspective for the industry. The historical aspects, the main research topics and future trends of microwave radio links are discussed, also considering the upcoming 5G systems. The organizers will collect the most interesting discussions between the speakers and the audience, and a follow-up will be delivered via e-mail to the attendees.






Mobile backhaul: opportunities for the microwave industry


Vittorio Camarchia; Marco Pirola; Roberto Quaglia; Politecnico di Torino


Microwave backhaul represents a viable and convenient solution for the mobile network evolution worldwide. The foreseen great investment will drive the adoption of new technological solutions in the field of microwave electronics. This introductory talk presents the figures related to the growing backhaul market, and addresses the main open issues in the microwave field.






Microwave Digital Radio Link transceivers: historical aspects and trends


Maurizio Pagani; Huawei Italia


Historically, since the very beginning of their initial deployment, Microwave Digital Radio Link systems have been continuously challenged by though product requirements like improving spectrum efficiency, increasing capacity and reducing the total cost of ownership. This continuous evolution in the market scenario has demanded through the past years a tremendous development of the transceiver technology, making possible the achievement of extremely high levels of reduction in power consumption, cost and form factor while improving electrical performance, yield, and reliability at an increasing operating frequency. These trends will be described with a good level of details showing how additional emerging technologies can offer an effective way to further increase the achievable performance.






Low complexity coding and modulation schemes for high spectral efficiencies in the wireless backhaul of mobile access networks


Guido Montorsi1; Stefano Chinnici2; 1Politecnico di Torino, 2Ericsson


The required spectral efficiency for wireless backhaul of mobile access network is constantly increasing, due to the augmented traffic demand, the increased signal to noise ratio corresponding to the reduced radio link length, and the bandwidth cost. In this talk, we will present the main difficulties and complexity constraints that limit the coding and modulation system for very high spectral efficiencies. In particular, we will show some solutions where the complexity of the receiver does not grows exponentially with the required spectral efficiency. State of the art solutions for low complexity coding and modulation schemes are discussed.






Integrated power amplifiers for microwave backhaul


Paolo Colantonio1; Vittorio Camarchia2; Marco Pirola2; Quaglia Roberto2; 1Università di Roma Tor Vergata, 2Politecnico di Torino


The power amplifier is the main actor in the microwave transmitter, consuming the most of the energy and highly influencing linearity. For backhaul radio links, the limited power budget poses strong challenges about the intrinsic linearity of the power amplifier. State of the art solutions for MMIC power amplifiers are discussed, focusing on the available technologies for the different frequency bands.






Antenna design for microwave links


James Watt; Flann Microwave


Backhaul microwave radio use frequencies across the entire microwave and mm-wave spectrum. Moreover, the deployment of small cells for 4G and future 5G systems will require a large number of antenna sites, with important requirements of integration, size and low visual impact. Different antenna design solution are needed for the different frequency bands, and to meet the hard requirements of performance and cost.





Capacity increase: A system-wide challenge


Matteo Oldoni; Goran Biscevic; Piero Coassini; SIAE Microelettronica, Italy


The relentless demand for data communications in the modern world requires unprecedented backhauling capabilities: but how to face such a tough challenge?
The incessant strive for higher data-transfer capabilities is today the main driver for new solutions affecting every aspect of these state-of-the-art telecommunication equipment: technology, digital processing and electromagnetics provide complementary but intertwined possibilities. A glance to current techniques and perspectives is presented while focusing on potential outcome and requirements.




Session: WMI

Advances of Microwave and Millimeter-wave Technologies for Vehicular Communication and Safety Driving


Alessandro Cidronali, Dept. Information Engineering, University of Florence 


 Vijay K. Nair; Intel Corp.


 The medium term vision for Intelligent Transportation Systems foresees the establishment of a radio communication among vehicles and the road infrastructure, for the propagation of useful information aimed at safety and efficient traffic management.
This is reflected in the work of regulatory bodies in Europe, USA and Japan, by which they have established common radio access technologies and protocols to harmonize and stimulate the growth of this technology. Significant effort is also devoted to the coexistence with other applications developed and consolidated as an answer to specific needs, such as road tolling and radar assisted driving.
While most of the research is currently devoted to the development of higher communication layers, the hardware platforms suitable to roll-out this scenario are in an evolutionary stage.
This workshop provides a comprehensive description of the most relevant research topics in the area of vehicular communications with special emphasis on microwave and millimeter wave techniques and methods.
Workshop topics include:

  • Front-end architecture for road-side units and on-board units- Automotive radar
  • Microwave and millimeter wave car-to-x communications
  • Applications in real world cases

The speakers, belonging to both academic and industrial institutions, will create a mix of new visions to this emerging field of vehicular communication systems.





Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC): An ad hoc communication technology for the high mobility vehicular environment

John Kenney, Toyota InfoTechnology Center, Mountain View, CA, USA

DSRC is an emerging technology that will enable vehicles to communicate with each other and with roadside infrastructure. One key application is to communicate vehicle positions and road conditions that allow a vehicle to identify hazards and collision threats. The safety benefits of DSRC have prompted a US Department of Transportation decision to require it in new cars within a few years. DSRC is also useful for many other applications, including enhanced traffic mobility, emission reduction, tolling, and commercial services. This talk introduces DSRC, addresses some of the technical challenges of communication at high speed in a severe multi-path environment, and discusses the future deployment of DSRC in the US and around the world.




Real-time MAC approaches for vehicular communications and its implications in PHY layer design

Arnaldo Oliveira, Dep. de Electrónica, Telecomunicações e Informática, Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal

The medium access is regarded as being one of the most challenging issues to solve in order to provide deterministic wireless communications in vehicular networks. The standard and general purpose protocols have been shown to fail in addressing this issue and some possible solutions have been proposed in the recent years. This talk provides an overview of the proposed techniques and their implementation requirements in terms of the PHY layer support.




Characterization of short range intra-vehicle wireless links comparing Ultrawideband 3-11 GHz and Millimeter Waves 55-65 GHz

Christoph F. Mecklenbräuker1; Aleš Prokeš2; Jiri Blumenstein2; Thomas Zemen3; 1TU Wien, Vienna, Austria, 2TU Brno, Brno, Czech Republic, 3AIT, Vienna, Austria

This contribution reports on in-vehicle radio propagation channel measurements for in-vehicle sensors in the Ultra Wide Bandwidth (UWB) frequency range 3-11 GHz and Millimeter Waves (MMW) 55-65 GHz. The effects of antenna placement in the vehicle's compartment, line of sight (LOS) and non-line of sight (NLOS) scenarios, as well as the effects due to the presence of passengers are studied. Statistics of the measured transfer functions result in a description of the channel's propagation loss and reverberation characteristics. We compare the UWB and MMW channel characteristics in detail.




Technologies for DSRC on-board and road-side units for road tolling applications

Alessandro Cidronali; Stefano Maddio; Marco Passafiume; Gianfranco Manes; University of Florence; Dept. Information Engineering, Italy

The medium term vision for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) foresees the establishment of a radio communication among vehicles (v2v) and the road infrastructure (v2i), for the propagation of useful information aimed at safety and efficient traffic management. The most diffused use cases are enabled by on-board unit (OBU) and Road Side Equipment (RSE) capable to transmit and receive suitable position-referenced information. ITS need to coexist with more established and diffused application while for instance road tolling which adopts DSRC. For these specific cases the communication profile differ but they share the same frequency spectrum and ultimately have to coexists. This encourage the development of flexible radio architectures capable to supports different applications profiles and communication standard. This talk review the technologies for both OBU and RSE suitable for ITS and DSRC applications.




Transceiver Technology Fusion of Wireless Communication and Radar Sensing Systems

Ke Wu; Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, University of Montreal, Canada

Wireless communication and radar sensing are two of the most prominent applications of radio technology. In the past, these two systems operate differently and independently. However, if implemented, the system fusion of wireless communication and radar sensing would definitely bring up many benefits such as architecture unification, simplification, and miniaturization, functional reconfiguration and fusion, and especially efficiency enhancement and cost reduction. This presentation reviews the emerging advances in the waveform design and system development for multifunctional wireless systems that integrate both communication (radio) and sensing (radar) functions. State-of-the-art communication-radar (or radio-radar) modulation schemes are presented and their features are discussed with reference to various challenging issues, namely, transceiver fusion, spectrum choice, system integration, and design platform. Theoretical and experimental research results on integrated communication and radar platform are highlighted to showcase the current development for vehicular applications. Future research topics in this direction are also pointed out with special interest in up-band millimeter-wave exploration and system-on-substrate development.




Virtual Microwave Drive: Software based development and evaluation of next generation's automotive microwave subsystems

Thomas Zwick -Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT) Institut für Hochfrequenztechnik und Elektronik (IHE), Germany

Initially, this talk will introduce the basic idea of developing and evaluating automotive microwave systems by virtual test-drives. These include the hardware, channel and software post-processing. The usage of an existing software tool-chain for system simulations is demonstrated, which also gives an insight into two actual research areas. For car-to-x communications optimum antenna radiation patterns for SISO/MIMO or radiation pattern reconfigurable antennas can be found. They are afterwards evaluated in terms of e.g. the resulting channel capacity or outage capacity. For automotive radars the received interference power levels for future, not yet present radar penetration rates is predicted by simulation. Further, the impact of radar-interference up to the tracking of objects is monitored for an FMCW-radar.




Integration and Performance Aspects of Automotive Radar at Millimeterwave and Sub-Millimeterwave Frequencies

Mike Koehler Mike Koehler; Lorenz-Peter Schmidt; Martin Vossiek; Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institute of Microwaves and Photonics, Germany

Modern driver assistance systems using radar sensors operating in a frequency range up to 81 GHz are very common nowadays. For realizing various applications like pre crash, collision warning or blind spot detection, available sensors provide distance, velocity and angle information of traffic objects. Scenarios like weakly reflecting objects in presence of nearby strong reflectors (e.g. a person standing close to a van) are very demanding in terms of radar systems angular resolution. In this contribution, possibilities to improve the angular resolution by increasing the operating frequency are discussed. Investigations of certain constraints with a focus on permittivity measurements of materials at 77 GHz and 150 GHz are presented. Further calculations of relevant parameters, like the atmospheric attenuation and system considerations concerning the operating frequency range are shown. Finally, an antenna concept at 150 GHz is presented demonstrating the benefits of high resolution radar for cars.



WMI-8  Automotive Radar Components as Enablers for (Semi)-Autonomous Driving

Sergio Palma Pacheco; Freescale Semiconductor, Safety Systems - Analog & Sensors Group Tempe, AZ, USA

Ever since the advent of the seat belt, safety has become a key differentiator in the automotive industry. This trend continued with airbags, anti-lock braking systems, and now with stability control. Although these systems have been pervasive for the past 20 years, the number of accidents and fatalities in the US has remained steady. The next step on the road towards greater safety in automobiles is the use of active sensing for collision avoidance. ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) are now a reality with automotive radar being a central component of such systems. As the Assistance part of the ADAS component becomes ever more pervasive and integrated into the car, a path towards (semi)-autonomous driving can be envisioned. This talk will cover current solutions and future implementations of autonomous driving; their shortcomings and challenges, as well as how automotive radar components can play a key role in solving those. It will discuss the technologies needed from a component as well as system level to be able to achieve such (semi)-autonomous driving capability.




Session: WMJ

Measurement-based Modeling in SI Applications


 Mike Resso, Keysight Technologies


 Heidi Barnes, Keysight Technologies


 : Signal integrity may sound simple, just design an interconnect so that a receiver can hear the transmitter. The physics has long been theoretically proven and the expectation is that any engineer can design the interconnect. Throw in the complexity of low cost, low power, mass production multi-layer laminate structures with high density 3-dimensional connectors at microwave frequencies and suddenly the pristine physics of Ohms Law at DC or even Maxwell's Equations for AC are no longer a perfect design solution. The solution to this problem can be found in measurement-based models.
This workshop brings together leading academia and industry engineers to explore the latest in measurement-based modeling technology to improve the accuracy of both measurements and simulations at multi-gigabit data rates. Learn how the top four signal integrity challenges of losses, discontinuities, skew, and crosstalk can be accurately modeled and measured for answering design questions. The workshop will get insight from academia on how measurement-based models can quickly ramp engineers up on the physics that matters for a given high speed interconnect design. Leading chip designers, connector manufacturers, and PCB fabricators will demonstrate the importance of driving simulations to match measurements. Then they will discuss the direct benefits that they are seeing in successful applications of new standards like the rapidly expanding PAM4 technology.




Ten Important Consistency Tests for S-parameter Measurements or Simulations

Dr. Eric Bogatin; Adjunct Professor, University of Colorado Boulder

It's easy to push the button and get S-parameter measurements from a VNA. It's hard to get measurements that are artifact free. Even then, it's sometimes difficult to know what is real or artifact. In this talk, I will present a collection of ten important observations that should be done on any measured S-parameter file to check the quality and consistency of the data. While most of the examples involve 4-port measurements on differential pairs, many of these tests can be applied to 1-port and 12-port measurements. These tests can be done on any touchstone file, measured or simulated.




Measurement Based Modeling for PCB Material Properties

 Chudy Nwachukwu; Isola Group USA

An in-depth understanding of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) materials and their packaging in multi-layer configurations has become critical for Signal Integrity design as data rates increase beyond 10 Gbps. To understand these micro-scale PCB effects, this presentation discusses skew induced by prepreg/laminate glass weaves and attenuation due to conductor adhesion roughness. The optimal selection of PCB materials to mitigate these high speed signaling barriers and shorten product development cycles will be illustrated by correlating EM simulations to measurements from application-specific test vehicles. Ultimately, PCB packages have to be re-engineered at reasonable costs to enable next generation requirements of 28+ Gbps interconnects.




How to Successfully Measure and Model Electronic Packages for SI

Rick Sturdivant; MPT Corporation

Very often the key to a successful package development is achieving the required signal integrity. This is true for analog and high speed digital circuits. These applications require high levels of confidence in the agreement that will be achieved between simulation and measured data. This workshop session will present methods and procedures that can be followed to increase the likelihood of agreement between models and measurement of packages such as QFN, leadless carriers, and ball grid arrays. The highlight of this session will be the "The Seven Keys for Successful Electronic Packages and Signal Integrity." This session will be useful to both managers leading teams and to practicing engineers who are responsible for electronic packaging at millimeter-wave frequencies and high speed systems to 100Gb/S and higher.




Challenges Facing Simulation and Measurement of PAM4 56Gb/s SI

Chad Morgan; Tyco Electronics

In upcoming signaling standards, such as those from OIF and IEEE, there is growing momentum for using PAM-4 signaling at 56 Gbps over electrical channels. In order to fully exploit the advantages of PAM-4 signaling, a new measurement and simulation eco-system must be established and validated. This presentation will show 56 Gbps measured data from high-density, low-crosstalk interconnect channels in order to validate PAM-4 simulation results from both traditional and statistical simulators. This study should verify simulation parameters such as jitter metrics and equalization techniques that are specific to PAM-4 signaling.




Circuit Design Simulation Enhanced by Interconnect Topology Characterization

Dennis Newmeyer; Intel Corporation

This presentation outlines a methodology used by a few Intel Analog Circuit Designers to enhance their high speed I/O circuit simulations referencing customer-like interconnect topology models. The methodology, used to generate models for multi-gigabit serial I/O transmission, enables circuit designers to optimize circuit design parameters to meet industry specifications for SAS, SATA, and PCIe high speed I/O protocols in customer reference designs. The interconnect models are generated by using a range of low to high frequency signals to characterize customer-like boards, cables, and connectors. Implementation of this novel methodology improves high speed I/O PHY performance in customer applications.


Session: WFA

T/R Module Panel Architecture and Associated Technology (IMS)


 Frank Sullivan, Raytheon Company


 Ruediger Quay, Fraunhofer Institute Applied Solid-State Physics


This Workshop will focus on the various technology aspects associated with the advancement of T/R Modules for phased array applications. These aspects include the architecture and associated technologies, the manufacturing issues, the required advanced packaging, reliability and life cycle cost. The Workshop will cover both microwave and millimeter wave applications. It will cover key technologies such as GaN and SiGe. One of the main drivers of this technology is the promise of lower cost to produce the product as well as lower life cycle cost. This means that maintainability and reparability play an important role. Phased arrays can have multimode and multifunction applications including radar (search and track), communications and counter measures. These applications present major challenges. Two key attributes required to meet the end goal of low overall cost depend on the array to have high reliability and maintainability. These in turn require high standards of the components that make up the system and efficient built in test methods. Eight excellent international speakers representing key players in the field have been selected and confirmed to assure high quality of discussion. The contributors represent industry, government and academia.
This technology has advanced considerably in the last decade and this workshop aims to highlight these advancements and prospects for critical areas and show what needs to be achieved going forward.




Development of a Silicon Based W-Band Phased Array for Rotary Wing Aircraft

H. Bruce Wallace; Strategic Technology Office, DARPA, Arlington, VA, United States

This talk will discuss a millimeter-wave defense application of SiGe-based phased arrays. The unique advantage of this technology is its ability to deliver large wafers with high yield and low-cost, coupled with acceptable RF performance such as NF and output power for 94 GHz applications. Also, the entire control circuitry can be integrated on the same chip using the SiGe BiCMOS process. System-level considerations will be described as the basis for understanding the suitability of the technology. Issues associated with integration of the SiGe beamformer into a phased array will also be described.




GaN MMICs for Wideband T/R Modules

Dr. Rüdiger Quay; Fraunhofer Institute Applied Solid-State Physics

The material system of GaN offers great opportunities for new wideband or multiband operation which are currently exploited in many ways based on the high gain BW product and the impedance advantages of the GaN system. This talk describes the development of GaN MMIC for wideband applications in the frequency range from 0 to 40 GHz with very high power levels which offers great opportunities for multifunctional integration. This includes thorough discussions of wideband power amplifiers, wideband switches, and wideband LNAs recently realized for wideband modules and the limits of the technology with respect to wideband power or function per chip. Examples of MMICs with very high bandwidth from 0..6 GHz, 6-18 GHz and to 40 GHz are given and the typical limitations of the chip design and related integration aspects are discussed.




Lowering Phased-Array Costs using Silicon Integration, Built-In-Self-Test and Multi-layer Organic Boards

Dr. Gabriel Rebeiz; University of California San Diego

The talk will present SiGe (and CMOS) chips and how they are being used to lower the cost of electronically-scanned phased arrays. Example arrays at X-band and K-band will be presented with 2-D scanning capabilities. Also, millimeter-wave phased arrays at 60-100 GHz benefit greatly from integration and arrays capable of +/-60 deg. scanning at 60 GHz and 80 GHz will be presented. The talk will conclude with built-in-self-test designs which allow for much lower testing costs, especially at mm-wave frequencies where packaging and testing dominates the cost of phased arrays.




RF front-end design and scalability considerations for W-band phased arrays

Dr. Bodhisatwa Sadhu; IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY, United States

This presentation discusses the benefits and challenges associated with the design of scalable phased arrays at W-band frequencies. First, the potential impact of phased arrays with tens to hundreds of elements for communication links at W-band is analyzed. The challenges and trade-offs associated with multiple integration and scaling options for W-band phased arrays are discussed, with special consideration to packaging and antenna performance. Finally, a solution based on SiGe ICs and organic packaging for a 64-element dual-polarized 94GHz phased array is presented, along with measurement results for both, the individual T/R front-ends, and the full scaled array.




Advanced Architectures for Active Millimeter-Wave Arrays

Dr. Arne F. Jacob; Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg, Germany

In this presentation we discuss different advanced architectures for mm-wave arrays together with the underlying innovative technological approaches.
The main focus is on applications in satellite communications at 20/30 GHz with an emphasis on the development of terminal antennas for mobile applications. SSPA-based frontends for multibeam satellite antennas are another aspect to be covered.
Antenna solutions for high-speed, short-range line-of-sight communication scenarios at W-band are addressed at last.




Advanced Technologies for cost-efficient T/R Modules

Dr. Patrick Schuh; Airbus Defence and Space

Active electronically steered array (AESA) antennas are increasingly being favoured over conventional mechanically scanned systems. T/R modules are key elements in these active phased array antennas. Today there are two main streams in the development of these modules. One is the further performance improvement, like bandwidth, RF output power, multi-function integration, the other is targeting size, weight and power and cost (SWaP-C).
Especially the development towards lower cost has gained importance in recent years.
The constrain aiming for cost and weight reduction is the trend towards higher integration. Higher integration both on MMIC level, like GaAs or even SiGe Core chips instead of single function GaAs MMICs, and also on module level, like new more compact module architectures are under investigation. Also the transition from the traditional hybrid technology, using bare dies, ceramic substrates and metal frames to realize hermeticity, towards surface mount components soldered on organic substrates has a big impact on the overall cost. This technology is the enabler for new fields of application for AESA antennas, like Satcom on the move, weather and security radars.




Advancing Semiconductor and Associated Packaging Solutions Supporting the Deployment of Phased Array Systems in a Diversifying Marketplace

Eli Reese; TriQuint

The use of phased array systems in an expanding range of commercial and defense systems in radar, communication, EW among other applications, requires advancement in performance, functionality, cost structure and manufacturing capability. Those advancements are enabled by improvements in semiconductor technology, functionality and associated packaging technology to effectively employ that capability in requisite physical environments and cost structure. This workshop section will introduce some of those technology improvements emerging in the industry today and examine potential for further extension in the future. Examples of phased array transmit/receive applications in both defense and commercial applications will be included.


WFA-8 Packaging Consideration in Next Generation Active Array Modules
Dr. Andrew Piloto; Kyocera America, United States

Emerging RF systems which incorporate active array antenna subsystems require major improvements in the microwave packaging technology used for the transmit/receive (T/R) modules. For these active arrays to be viable, T/R module designs need to be lower cost, lighter weight, and more producible while simultaneously meeting ever increasing and integrated RF and DC requirements. Presented herein are examples of a variety of modules, many of which have already been produced in the millions, for ground, airborne and space-based platforms.
Fabricated from conventional packaging and in some cases PWB materials, these T/R modules incorporate an ultra-miniature, surface brazed RF connector and 3D RF and DC routing as well as multi-channel devices that have been co-designed to enable cost effective designs. The result is a packaging technology that reduces life cycle cost and achieves improved performance from previous designs. Also discussed is the incorporation of mechanical features in the T/R module that ease the array assembly thereby reducing its cost and time of manufacture for the array subsystem.



Session: WFB

Recent advancements on millimeter-wave 3D heterogeneous and multilayer MCM integrations


 Dr. Kamal K. Samanta, Milmega/AMETEK Ltd, Ryde, England


 Prof. Maurizio Bozzi, University of Pavia, Italy


This workshop presents, in a coherent way, the latest advancements and novel achievements in millimeter-wave and sub-mmW wafer-level heterogeneously integration and multilayer multichip module (MCM) technologies for realizing high performance and compact RF-front ends. The new wafer-level heterogeneously integrated circuit combines III-V semiconductor with Si technology, which allows taking the advantage of the high-freq. performance of InP and high power and broadband performance of GaN while maintaining the unique capabilities of BiCMOS, such as maturity and complex digital functionalities at a low cost. Further, the current trends and the state-of-the-art developments in heterogeneously integrated circuits (up to 250 GHz) including integration of InP-HBT on Si BiCMOS, and integration of GaN-HEMT and InP-HBT on SiGe BiCMOS would be discussed. The advanced MCM approaches for mm-wave circuit and system integration will also be presented; this includes packaging issues and the use of multilayer technologies, like liquid crystals polymers (LCP), ceramic (LTCC), photoimageable thick-film, organic and IPD.




Advancing millimeter-wave capabilities through 3D heterogeneous integration

Dr Daniel S. Green; DARPA/MTO, Arlington, VA United States

RF modules are increasingly moving to higher frequencies in the mm-wave region thus presenting challenges to operate with acceptable linearity, power efficiency, size and weight, and overall system performance. In recent years, Si- and SiGe-based RF/mixed signal technologies have made remarkable progress by leveraging advanced technology nodes and integration density; however, compound semiconductor technologies still possess fundamental material property advantages particularly as the operating frequency moves into the mm-wave regime. Heterogeneous integration is a promising technology to leverage both the material properties of compound semiconductors and the integration density of Si- and SiGe-based technologies in a single SoC. DARPA has invested in a number of programs to advance the design and manufacturing of complete RF modules leveraging integrated III-V and advanced Si solutions. This talk will discuss the latest advances achieved by these programs.




InP-on-BiCMOS hetero-integration for 250 GHz circuits

Prof. Wolfgang Heinrich; Ferdinand-Braun-Institut (FBH) at Berlin, Germany

A heterointegration approach of InP-HBTs on BiCMOS is presented which is pursued in a collaboration between the two German Leibniz institutes FBH and IHP, targeting systems in the frequency range beyond 100 GHz. It combines the InP-HBT transferred-substrate process at FBH with the SiGe-BiCMOS one at IHP. In a first step, the BiCMOS and InP wafers are processed separately. Then, both wafers are bonded using BCB and the process is completed removing the InP substrate and realizing the last metallization layers and the interconnects. This approach allows to combine InP subcircuits with SiGe-BiCMOS ones, with broadband interconnects up to 300 GHz. Modules combining the benefits of both technologies can be fabricated on a single chip. Hetero-integrated sources consisting of oscillator, multiplier and PA stages have been demonstrated and will be presented along with further circuit blocks in the frequency range between 160 GHz and 250 GHz.




3D Stacking of Advanced Compound Semiconductors with Si CMOS

Dr. Miguel Urteaga; Teledyne Scientific, United States

Advances in 3DIC stacking are being extended to heterogeneous integration of compound semiconductor devices with Si CMOS. Key process innovations that are being developed at Teledyne under the DARPA DAHI program include: CMP processes on III-V interconnects and materials, heterogeneous integration utilizing Ziptronix direct bond interconnects (DBI), and fine dimension InP TSVs for 3D integration. Challenges in transferring these processes,that are common to Si platforms, to more nascent technologies will be discussed. Design kit integration and mm-wave design considerations will be presented with examples from the design of mm-wave beamformer elements.




Synthesizer Improvement using Heterogeneous Integration of Silicon, Indium Phosphide and Gallium Nitride Technologies

Dr.Tim R LaRocca; Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, United States

This presentation covers the circuit performance advantages, lessons learned and challenges of a millimeter-wave E-band (71-76GHz) synthesizer that intimately integrates multiple high-performance III-V semiconductor technologies with an advanced CMOS node. The circuits are integrated using Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems' DAHI (Diverse Accessible Heterogeneous Integration) integration process that bonds the technologies using a proven and reliable metal-to-metal interconnect otherwise referred to as a heterogeneous interconnect (HIC). The micron scale HIC enables the synthesizer and other circuits to use the best performing transistor without causing excessive loss and phase delay. The E-band synthesizer is a dual-mode design with the core VCO (negative resistance generator) designed using InP HBT technology for extremely low 1/f noise coupled with GaN output buffer for maximum output voltage swing. The VCO is embedded within an 11 channel CMOS PLL for a true DAHI optimized synthesizer.


WFB-5 Recent trends in RF/mm-wave packaging and integration technologies
Prof. John Papapolymerou; GATech Atlanta, USA

This presentation will focus on recent RF/mm-wave System-on-Package technology trends. WE will present examples from multilayer organic packaging solutions from a X-band to 170 GHz, as well as examples from thin glass packaging solutions up to 60 GHz.

WFB-6 Advanced MCM Technology Enabling High Quality Components and Highly Integrated Cost-effective Front-End at Millimeter-wave and Beyond
Dr Kamal K Samanta; Milmega/AMETEK, Park Road, England

Multichip Module (MCM/SoP) is widely accepted as an excellent means for realizing millimeter wave (mmW) systems. However, using conventional thick-film, it is very difficult to achieve either fine conductor geometry to realize passives with high quality as well as high SRF, or trench-filled metal walls for a substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) with applications in high mmW frequencies. Whereas, recently developed advanced multilayer photoimageable thick-film (PI-TF) technology is very promising and can comfortably overcomes these shortfalls. The process is straightforward, cost-effective and yet achieves line/gap of 10/15μm and trench-filled via, enabling realization SIW components comfortably to 180 GHz and beyond.
This talk will present the recent important advancements and novel achievements in PI-TF multilayer technology, which have been producing many records in MCM/SoP technologies. This will cover a wide range of high Q and SRF lumped/passive components and circuits (including low loss SIW) up to 200 GHz with remarkably high performance and miniaturization ever reported in MCM technologies, including LTCC, LCP and Organic. Then will present mm-wave systems, realized using an innovative assembling technique, including demonstration of the first highly compact complete V-band receiver integrating MMICs with embedded SIW antenna and filters, L/C components, LPF and other passives on a single substrate.

WFB-7 High capability GaN MMIC approaches and cost-efficient MCM heterogenous integration of Gallium Nitride

Dr. Rüdiger Quay; Fabian Thome; Fraunhofer Institute of Applied Solid-State Physics (IAF), Freiburg, Germany

From an integration point of view mm-wave Gallium Nitride is a classical stand alone IC technology which justifies it is existence by very good performances for single or very few functions per chip, e.g. in PAs, switches and LNAs. The good performance also allows a reduction of the passive components. This is typically true based on the high power and good robustness per chip. In addition mm-wave GaN poses stringend requirement on the thermal dissipation as the high power capability is typically achieved with efficiencies of 30 % in the mm-wave leading to thermal requirements beyond those of low-cost Integration schemes. The paper discusses novel mm-wave MMICs of interest to be integrated with more advanced silicon and GaAs/InP mm-wave in approaches in MCMs which are in-line with the advancements of the higher integrated technologies.

WFB-8 Silicon and Ceramic Based Microwave and Millimeter Wave Integration

Dr. Tauno Vähä-Heikkilä; VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland

Aim to higher level of integration is one of the key focuses in modern radio front-end module development from RF (radio frequency) to millimeter waves. Especially this trend is driven by consumer electronics products. Silicon and laminate based technologies are driving development efforts in RF applications below 6 GHz and the same trend can be seen also to be used up to millimeter wave applications up to 110 GHz. Trough substrate vias and fine pitch flip chip technologies are in key role to allow miniature 3D integration. In addition to these, Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC) technology is used especially in microwave and millimeter wave integration. It is stable module packaging and integration platform technology. It can also be used for hermetic packaging needed in aerospace and other demanding harsh environment applications. This presentation shows examples of silicon, laminate and ceramic modules as well as compares their properties both from performance and cost point of view.

WFB-9 Wafer-Level Ball Grid Array Packaging Technology for Embedded Millimeter-Wave Modules

Prof. Dietmar Kissinger, 1IHP, Frankfurt (Oder), Germany, 2TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3FAU Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany

This talk presents the system and component design of highly integrated transceivers for radar and communication applications. In this context, integrated multi-purpose transceivers have been designed and packaged in a wafer-level ball grid array (BGA) technology which allows for direct embedding of the antennas in the package redistribution layer. This technique allows a very compact and efficient frontend realization comprising all millimeter-wave components in an 8x8 mm2 package. For verification purposes the highly integrated transceiver frontends have been soldered on a standard low-cost FR4 substrate printed circuit board and a millimeter-wave demonstrator system has been set up.




Session: WFC

Non Linear RFID Systems, Characterization and Exploitations


Smail Tedjini, Grenoble-inp/LCIS, France


Nuno Borges Carvalho, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal


Apostolos Georgiadis, Centre Tecnologic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC), Spain


The workshop will focus on the nonlinearity in RFID systems. Indeed, the RFID chip, due to its rectifying circuit that harvests the EM power and therefore ensures the proper fed of the chip, is essentially a nonlinear device that generates several harmonics of the fundamental frequency of communication (868MHz, 915MHz, 950MHz, according to geographic regulations). This nonlinear property is usually considered as a spurious effect that contributes to the degradation of the RFID communication performance and therefore not exploited. Some pioneering papers have been evaluating such nonlinear properties just for purpose of comparison between several RFID chips. However, only few have been done on the exploitation of these nonlinear properties confirmed by experimental results. One of the objectives of the workshop is to review the state of the art of nonlinear properties of RFID chips. The workshop will also consider the exploitation of nonlinear RFID effects in order to enlarge the field of applications of RFID in particular within the general context of Internet Of Things.




Nonlinear behavior and characteristics of RFID chips

Gianfranco Andia-Vera; Yvan Duroc; Smail Tedjini; Grenoble-inp/LCIS, France

In this paper, the generation of harmonics in RFID chips is discussed as well as some visions for the exploitation of these nonlinear effects in applications. Experimental characterization of several RFID chips is carried out and their nonlinear performance are compared in term of power density of harmonics. It is demonstrated that for most RFID chips the level of the third harmonics is quite significant and can be easily measured. These experimental results are compared to a theoretical analysis based on an electrical circuit model. In the second part of this communication we address some application based on the exploitation of nonlinear behavior, in particular generation of the third harmonic. All the discussed applications require the design of specific antenna for the RFID tags. The design procedure should exploit three non-linear phenomena: (1) the impedance power dependency, (2) the harmonic production, and (3) the dependence on the RF waveform. The example of Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting from some usual ambient signals such as WIFI or UMTS is demonstrated and significant read-range improvement is observed in practice. The last part of the communication will discuss some new ideas extending the capabilities of RFID tags by exploiting their nonlinear behavior.




The use of NL generation for Passive TAG design

K. Nuno Borges Carvalho; Alírio Boaventura; Insituto de Telecomunicacoes, Universidade de Aveir

In this talk we will address the impact of nonlinear distortion on passive RFID TAG's, discussing the phenomena of nonlinear generation in the nonlinear front-end both from an implementation point of view, but also from a characterization point of view of nonlinear RFID TAG's. The talk will also address alternative solutions to maximize coverage range of RFID TAG's using nonlinear approaches when implementing multi-sine excitation.
Some practical examples on how to use commercial available readers combined with the proposed scheme will also be addressed and discussed throughout the presentation.




Energy harvesting and waveform selection for improved RFID performance  

Apostolos Georgiadis; Ana Collado; Centre Tecnologic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC)

The presentation begins with an overview and state-of-the-art in commonly used energy harvesting technologies such as solar, vibration, thermal and electromagnetic. Special focus is placed on challenges associated with electromagnetic energy transfer and harvesting for range maximization of passive RFID systems. Multiple technology harvesters leading to the development of energy harvesting assisted RFIDs are discussed. Low profile and conformal solar antennas and solar–electromagnetic harvesters including examples implemented on paper and textile substrates are presented. The integration of an antenna with a thermo electric generator is demonstrated. Waveform optimization in wireless power transfer is addressed, and the ability to improve the RF-DC power conversion efficiency of electromagnetic energy harvesting devices by tailoring the characteristics of the transmitted signals is discussed.



MIMO wireless power transfer for nonlinear energy harvesters and RFID transponders

Matt Reynolds; Daniel Arnitz; University of Washington, USA

This talk will present recent work toward enhancing far-field wireless power transfer (WPT) to nonlinear, passive UHF RFID backscatter transponders using a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) base station. The proposed method does not require on-tag power measurements or on-tag channel estimation, either of which would add prohibitive complexity and power consumption for microwatt-class wirelessly powered devices such as passive UHF RFID tags. We show in a measurement-based proof of concept that WPT optimization to nonlinear backscatter transponders is possible solely based on the backscatter signal, without knowledge of the incident power level at the tag or prior knowledge of the tag's characteristics. These results suggest that the use of MIMO interrogators could lead to improved forward-link performance and thus efficiently provide increased power for sensors or other new power-hungry functions on nonlinear passive transponders.


Multi-faceted Applications for Power-optimized waveforms/Multi-sines

Christopher R. Valenta; Matthew S. Trotter; Gregory D. Durgin; Electro-optical Systems Laboratory, Georgia Tech Research Institute, Georgia, USA

Power-optimized waveforms (POWs) and multi-sine excitations were originally designed to improve the energy conversion efficiency of wireless energy harvesting circuits. However, these types of waveforms can also be used for range estimation and 'charge tickling' in wireless sensor networks. This presentation will discuss the fundamental limits of energy harvester conversion efficiency and address how POWs are able to improve performance. These theoretical limits derived from closed-form equations are verified with simulated results and validated with laboratory measurements using a 5.8 GHz microwave energy harvester. These laboratory measurements demonstrate the most efficient, low-power microwave energy harvester ever reported in literature. Furthermore, the applicability of POWs for ranging finding applications and detection of un-powered passive tags will be presented. These findings show that tags can be localized to a distance corresponding to their POW RMS bandwidth and the estimation is further improved with a model for non-linear tag backscatter. Finally, a method known as 'charge tickling' shows that it is possible to detect the presence of a tag in an environment where it is unable to power-on.


Characterization of non-linear UHF RFID front-ends

Thomas Ussmueller; University of Innsbruck

This talk will highlight a comprehensive measurement-based characterization of an UHF RFID frontend at baseband and at RF. The presentation explains the necessity and the practical execution of the large-signal characterization and the nonlinear analyses of the frontend at UHF, including the effects of the power harvesting circuitry on the RF signal. The fundamentals of the source-pull measurement setup will be described in detail and the results of selected measurements will be presented.


Nonlinear Phenomenon in RFID

Ching Eng (Jason) Png, IHPC; Wai Siang Yeoh, A*STAR

The talk will mainly discuss about the non-linearity phenomenon in RFID and its possible utilization for future applications. The discussion focus on non-linearity issue in passive RFID system, which are related to (1) the input impedance variation when using COTS component for far-field wireless power transfer and (2) the spurious responses that may occur up to the 4th harmonic.
It is ideal for both the input of harvesting rectifier and the antenna to be precisely matched in an RFID device. However, owing to the non-linearity characteristic of the diode components, the impedance tends to vary with respect to input power. The variation mismatches the induced energy transfer from antenna to the rectifier and thus affects the efficiency. On top of that, the harmonic responses are very common in the RFID system due to non-linearity characteristic. The harmonic distorts the fundamental waveforms and affect the wireless channel.
In the talk we will discuss several common solutions from the industry such as harmonic rejection in order to increase quality of service (QoS). We will also propose possible method to utilize the "by-product" for certain purpose.


RF-baseband nonlinear co-design of zero-power harvesting systems

Alessandra Costanzo; Diego Masotti; DEI University of Bologna, Italy

In this presentation we discuss the entire nonlinear RF-base/band co-design procedure of RF rectifiers required to dynamically cooperate with ultra-low power management unit (PMU), which represent their actual loads. The design targets are battery-less RF energy harvesting applications with typical input power ranging from ~10 to ~100 mW. In order to allow activation in discharged states, the PMU is equipped with a low voltage start-up stage, specifically optimized for biasing the rectifier accordingly. When a sufficient voltage is reached, the PMU activates a more efficient boost converter stage with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) capabilities and micro-power consumption. These two configurations thus result in two very different loading conditions for the nonlinear operations of the rectifier. Thus to obtain successful operation, a joint design of the nonlinear rectifier paths and of the PMU sub-systems is mandatory, along with a circuit solution for automatically switching between the start-up stage and the boost converter. The design procedure will be extensively described and its steps demonstrated by means of a microstrip prototype and by a discrete components PMU. Finally possible different technology solutions will also be discussed.


Power-Integrity, Signal Integrity, EMC/EMI in Integrated Circuits and Systems for Wireless RF, mm-Wave and THz Applications

Sidina Wane; NXP-Semiconductors

Monolithic integration technology solutions open new perspectives for wireless Inter-Chip/Intra-Chip communications including applications such as RFID systems, reconfigurable sensors, contactless probing, and imaging/detection applications. The ultimate performance limits of wireless communication systems can only be achieved through a radical change of paradigm in existing system design and characterization methodologies. The required radical change calls for the definition of new design parameters and characterization standards based on 'Power-Energy' considerations for effective mitigation of three main performance limiting-factors, namely: actives (sources), passives (signal transports) and antennas (electromagnetic radiations). The handled signals being intrinsically multi-harmonic, impulsive and a-periodic, their analysis and characterization require distributed broadband Active-Passive-Antenna (Chip-Package-PCB) co-simulation and co-verification.
The proposed contribution will focus on Chip-Package-PCB electrical-thermal Co-Design, Co-Simulation and Experimental Co-verification for Power Integrity (PI), Signal Integrity (SI) and compliance with EMC/EMI requirements in integrated wireless communication systems. Practical near-field and far-field applications from RF, mm-Wave to THz domains will be discussed; perspectives for 'Power-Energy' aware design/characterization/verification together with the prerequisite unification of Analog and Digital domains will be drawn.

WFC-10 Chipless harmonic RFIDs on eco-friendly materials

Luca Roselli; University of Perugia, Italy

The novel application field of Internet of Things (IoT) is opening the door to the diffusion of wireless, energetically autonomous, sensor nodes embedded in any object. In order to fully exploit the possibility of having connected "things", communicating data one to each other and, in general, uploading sensed information on internet, some challenges have to be faced yet. One of these is related to the design of tags limiting or, possibly, eliminating the number of components (especially IC) on board in order to reduce the nodes' power consumption and the effect of pollution due to a huge amount of electronic devices deployed into the environment. A proposed solution is the adoption of harmonic chipless RFID tags which exploit the principle of signal frequency multiplication in order to separate the interrogation signal from the response of the tag itself and transmit 2 to 4 bits of information with no need of IC (just some passive components on board). During the presentation some examples will be described introducing tags that are not only chipless, but also manufactured by using biodegradable substrates (i.e. cellulose), thus improving their eco-compatibility and opening the door to the concept of "green RFIDs".




Session: WFD

Radar in a Communications-Driven Spectrum: Innovative System, Component, and Circuit Design for the Evolving Spectrum Environment


Charles Baylis, Baylor University, USA


Lawrence Cohen, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, USA 


Robert J. Marks II, Baylor University, USA


Communications applications require significant bandwidth and also provide economic benefit through wireless device sales. Radar systems perform significant functions in weather detection, defense, and remote sensing. Radar systems will need to be designed to be spectrally sensitive and coexist with communications in dynamic spectrum access environments. This workshop has two parts: (1) discussion of spectrum challenges for radar systems and (2) investigation of cutting-edge solutions for radar design including designing to overcome amplifier nonlinearities, supply modulation for radar power amplifiers, , ambiguity-function design including spectral constraints, waveform design for radar with power amplifier distortion joint circuit and waveform optimization for reconfigurable adaptive radar power amplifiers, and tunable circuitry innovations to facilitate reconfigurable power amplifiers. The workshop will conclude with a panel session that will feature additional interaction between the speakers and attendees, and will be able to allow attendees to interact with speakers on how their solutions fit the needs they identified at the beginning of the workshop. Attendees will leave with a better understanding of the design challenges facing radar operators and having participated in drawing a "road map" to the design of future radars that will successfully coexist with evolving communications systems.




"What are the Issues," Discussion

A discussion, facilitated by the workshop organizers, will allow attendees to describe issues and challenges they are facing in spectral coexistence of radar and communication systems.




Spectrum Regulations and Measurements

Frank Sanders; U.S. National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA)

This presentation details how radars are regulated. The worldwide and United States governing approach for spectrum is overviewed, including description of the functions of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), and the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA). The Radar Spectrum Engineering Criteria (RSEC), implemented by the NTIA for regulating radar in the United States, is described. Spectral masks are used to determine compliance with regulations, and construction of the spectral mask is explained. Measurement procedures for assessing compliance with regulations are surveyed. Finally, recent activities at the ITU related to radar regulation are presented.




Radar Issues in Spectrum Compatibility

Lawrence S. Cohen; U.S. Naval Research Laboratory

This presentation will discuss radar spectrum compatibility from three central themes: (1) system design impact due to regulatory and economic changes; (2) potential conflicts with wireless systems; and (3) radar phenomenology with emphasis on legacy and future receiver and transmitter design. First, radar emissions, as well as increasingly stringent design demands that are driven as much by economics as technology, will be addressed with respect to international and US regulatory criteria. Next, examples of radar emissions data that can cause interference with other systems will be presented and the presentation will discuss contemporary wireless systems in the context of their vulnerability to radar emissions. Finally, there will be discussion on the design of radar receivers and transmitters, both solid state and tube. Increasing regulatory requirements with emphasis on lower out of band spectral emissions for the avoidance of adjacent band interference will require new approaches to transmitter design. At the same time, anticipated changes in spectrum allocations in terms of such issues as spectrum sharing, dynamic spectrum allocation, guard band width, etc., will require innovative design approaches for receivers.




Power Amplifier Architectures for Radar-Comms Coexistence

J. Stevenson Kenney; Georgia Institute of Technology

Digital pre-distortion (DPD) and crest factor reduction (CFR) (aka peak-to-average ratio – PAR reduction) are now standard in transmitters for 3G and 4G commercial cellular communications. These signal processing techniques have led to much improved power amplifier (PA) efficiency. System capacity has also been increased because of lower in-band interference (error vector magnitude – EVM) and out-of-band interference (adjacent channel leakage ratio – ACLR). The same techniques have been applied to waveforms used in military communications as well. However, radar-comms coexistence proposes new challenges for mitigating interference while maintaining high transmitter efficiency. Commercial cellular PAs generally operate between 5 and 8 dB back-off, depending on the waveform complexity and the capabilities of DPD and CFR, to achieve reasonable efficiency with minimal interference. In contrast, high-power radar systems are traditionally run saturated, or with very limited back-off (1-2 dB) to achieve highest efficiency. Little consideration has been given to their out-of-band emissions, which are known to pose considerable interference to commercial and military communication (Comms). Moreover, advanced systems are now considering combining radar with comms in the same system, which will necessarily increase the complexity, and likely the PAR of the waveform. This presentation will discuss alternative PA architectures and interference reduction techniques required for radar-comms coexistence, either as separate systems, or combined in one system.




Supply-Modulated GaN Transmitters for Radar Waveforms with Improved Spectral Confinement

Zoya Popovic; Andrew Zai; University of Colorado

Typical radar power amplifiers are biased in Class C because it is an efficient class of operation and the bias level turns of the transmitter between pulses. However, this non-linear class of operation limits the transmitter to rectangular pulses because of the fast rise and fall times inherent to class of operation. We motivate the use of a radar pulse waveform which has a Gaussian shaped envelope because it has a well-contained spectrum, unlike the rectangular pulse, and show techniques to improve the Gaussian shaped pulse in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and range resolution. Theory is presented which shows a supply-modulated power amplifier can efficiently transmit a Gaussian shaped pulse. Lastly, a simple resonant circuit is presented as the supply modulator. Simulations and measurements of are performed for resonant supply-modulated X-Band GaN MMIC PA. 




Ambiguity Functions and Spectral Constraints

Robert J. Marks II; Baylor University

The ambiguity function describes the precision with which a radar waveform can estimate the range and Doppler of a target. The history of the ambiguity function's development in World War II is presented, and theoretical development of the ambiguity function is detailed. Examples of ambiguity properties of certain waveforms are described. The effects of amplifier nonlinearities on the ambiguity function (the estimation capabilities of the radar) are described, and the need to create an approach for obtaining desired ambiguity function properties despite transmitter amplifier nonlinearities is motivated. Research results are presented on the optimization of radar waveforms based on ambiguity function properties and spectral mask constraints.




Transmitter-in-the-Loop Optimization of Waveform-Diverse Radar Emissions

Shannon Blunt; University of Kansas

Driven by the demands for better spectral containment and for enhanced performance and capabilities through waveform diversity, a polyphase-coded FM (PCFM) scheme has been developed that leverages continuous phase modulation (CPM) used in aeronautical telemetry, deep-space communications, and BluetoothTM. PCFM waveforms are amenable to high-power radar systems while permitting design via optimization of an underlying polyphase code, thus enabling transmitter distortion to be incorporated into the waveform design process instead of requiring the separate determination and implementation of transmitter predistortion. Further, because this structure provides a direct connection between the parameterized code values and the physical radar emission, alternative transmitter architectures such as LINC can be readily incorporated as well as additional design freedoms such as spatial modulation (MIMO) and polarization modulation. Both simulation and experimental measurements will be provided to demonstrate the efficacy of this parameterized emission scheme.




Joint Circuit and Waveform Optimization for Power Amplifiers in Adaptive, Spectrally Sensitive Future Radars

Charles Baylis; Baylor University

This presentation details the development of an approach to simultaneously optimize the power amplifier circuit and input waveform for the goals of desired ambiguity function properties (radar estimation), amplifier power efficiency, and spectral compliance. An overview of optimization approaches that maximize the power-added efficiency (PAE) while remaining within spectral constraints (determined either by the adjacent-channel power ratio or the spectral mask) is presented. The Smith Tube is introduced as an expanded design space for joint circuit and waveform optimization, and examples of simulation and measurement results simultaneously optimizing the waveform bandwidth and the power-amplifier load impedance are presented. The presentation concludes by describing a research path toward microwave design techniques for spectrally sensitive cognitive and adaptive radar that include reconfigurable microwave circuitry and optimizable waveforms.




Cavity-based MEMS Tuners for Reconfigurable Power Amplifiers

Dimitrios Peroulis; Purdue University

A conventionally-designed tunable power amplifier needs a tunable matching network at its output. This typically results in added complexity, loss, and decreased linearity. An attractive methodology to avoid such difficulties and substantially improve the overall system performance is to consider co-designing critical modules of the transceiver chain. In this talk we will focus on co-designing techniques for power amplifiers and cavity-based MEMS tuners. We will introduce design methods that avoid tunable matching networks and results in significant benefits in the overall efficiency and linearity. We will pay particular attention to high-power limitations resulting in non-linear behavior and bifurcation characteristics. Furthermore, we will explore microdischarges that may be caused by increased power levels particularly for micron-scale gaps. It will be shown that these phenomena are strong functions of frequency and pressure. Measured and simulated results will be presented for all discussed phenomena based on GaN amplifiers and high-Q loaded cavity tunable filters.



WFD-10 Panel Session: Attendees and Speakers

A panel session will allow discussion and interaction between speakers and attendees about a way forward in meeting the challenges of radar in the spectrum environment.




Session: WFE

Thermal Management of High Power Density Electronic Assemblies


 John Pierro; Telephonics, Farmingdale USA


 Frank Sullivan, Raytheon, Sudbury USA


System applications ranging from commercial wireless appliances to the most sophisticated active electronically steered arrays for multi-mode airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) and fighter aircraft radars are demanding more and more functionality in ever smaller footprints, presenting ever greater challenges to the thermal management of the system. Wireless devices must continually make room for circuitry to support the latest emerging wireless standards, more CPU, more memory, without any changes to the size of the device. The trend toward "tile-based" printed circuit board (PCB) packaging in modern AESA's, which is essential to making active arrays affordable and practical, and the insertion of high power density GaN technology (approaching 10w/mm) in AESA are demanding packaging innovations to solve very difficult PA thermal management problems. Embedded microfluidic cooling, DARPA's "ICECool", graphene nanoribbon technology, synthetic diamond heat spreaders and high conductivity substrates are among the many options available to the thermal engineer but are they optimum and do they keep the system affordable?
The workshop will assemble experts from Europe and America who are working to find practical, relevant solutions to these challenges.




An Overview of Various Critical Thermal Management Issues for Microwave PCB's

John Coonrod; Rogers Corporation

Thermal management issues for todays' microwave printed circuit boards (PCB's) continue to increase in intricacy due to several factors. There are frequency dependencies, design relationships, and material properties which are complicated by the fact that microwave PCB applications nowadays are structurally more complex than earlier designs.
This presentation will focus on several areas which are critical aspects for microwave PCB thermal management. A quick outline follows:

  • - Basic heat flow theory as it relates to PCB structures
  • - Circuit material properties critical to thermal management
  • - Heat sink attachment to PCB and related electrical performance issues
  • - Various circuit design configurations, heat flow modeling and confirming thermal images

The discussion related to basic heat flow will give the heat flow formula as related to a simple physics model and then expanding the discussion to an appropriate model for PCB's. Following the overview of heat flow will be a concentration on several material properties which are critical to thermal management. Some material properties, such as thermal conductivity, are assumed to be critical however there are several other properties which can be equally important for certain thermal-electrical configurations. A discussion regarding heat sink attachment to PCB will include the previous topics and supplement with microwave electrical performance issues. When a heat sink and thermally and electrically conductive adhesive (TECA) is part of the ground return path, microwave electrical performance of the PCB can be altered and this will be illustrated. Finally, all previous topics will be practically demonstrated by way of several microwave PCB designs, with heat sink attached using TECA, thermal images of the circuits with power applied and heat flow calculations related to circuit thermal performance.




DARPA's Intrachip Enhanced Cooling Program (ICECool): Embedded Cooling for RF and Digital Electronics

Avram Bar-Cohen1; Joseph J. Maurer2; Avinash Kane2 and Kaiser Matin3; 1Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, 2Booz Allen Hamilton, 3Systems Planning Corporation

The increased integration density of microelectronics, along with advances in compound semiconductors and heterogeneous integration, has exacerbated the thermal challenges facing RF and digital electronic system developers. This has led to the proliferation of "thermally-limited" systems whose performance fails to reach the inherent transistor and circuit technology capability due to inability to remove the heat. DARPA's Intrachip Enhanced Cooling (ICECool) program seeks to overcome these limitations by "embedding" microfluidic thermal management in the chip to directly cool the heat generation sites. The ICECool technology, as well as thermal/electrical/mechanical co-design tools and methodologies, is being applied to GaN MMICs and digital ICs, with the ultimate goal of achieving greater than 3x electronic performance through the application of an ICECool embedded cooling technique.




Approaches, Needs and Future Trends in Thermal Management of High Power RF Systems

David H Altman; Raytheon Corporation

Changes in RF system thermal management over the last 50 years have been largely driven by the transition from vacuum power tubes to GaAs and now GaN integrated circuits (ICs) as a means to amplify RF power. This talk will address approaches and needs for RF thermal management by providing historical perspectives, a review of the current state-of-the-art techniques, and discussion on areas of development to address current and future needs. This includes an overview of state-of-the-art thermal packaging solutions for today's high power applications, as well as technologies under development targeting thermally unlimited utilization of GaN. Lastly, we will address the implications of future trends towards higher frequency operation, increased levels of integration, and the emergence of 3D RF and mixed-signal electronics on future thermal management solutions.




Thermal Design Challenges of Tiled-Array E-Scan Antennas

Angus McLachlan; George Fisher; Graeme Morrison; Tony Kinghorn; Selex ES, Edinburgh, UK

Next generation Radars are presenting significant challenges: with both improved performance demands and lower cost & size are being mandated by customers. Such requirements often include radar modes featuring high RF transmit duty ratio -- causing knock-on changes in radar antenna architecture, transmit/receive (T/R) module design approach, the semiconductors used therein, and crucially, changes to both packaging and interconnection schemes. All of this has given rise to almost unsupportable thermal management challenges.
This paper will explore some potential approaches to the design of a 'next generation', low-cost, tiled antenna -- highlighting the thermal challenges involved. The steps taken to assess and manage the effects of heat dissipation, as compared with the otherwise consequential impact on antenna performance and reliability, will be discussed. Looking forward, the 'wish-list' of alternative thermal management technologies and techniques that may be adapted and adopted for tailored use in the specific context of future antenna designs, will also be discussed.




Two-Phase Cooling for High Power Density Electronics

Andy Johnston; Parker Hannifin Corporation, Washington USA

The continued increase in electronics power density is driving demand for improved cooling solutions. Two-phase cooling approaches, in which the liquid coolant vaporizes as part of the cooling process, have more potential to satisfy this demand than do air or traditional liquid cooling. Two-phase solutions are capable of cooling performance well beyond the limits of single phase cooling, and in addition acquire waste heat with reduced temperature variation of the target surfaces. These advantages are more pronounced at moderate to high heat fluxes. Two-phase systems use many of the same components found in traditional liquid cooling, but lower two phase flow requirements result in substantial SWaP reductions. Two-phase cooling implementations include a variety of heat acquisition methods, each with their own advantages. This presentation will describe the various solution paths, such as micro- channels and spray cooling, and highlight the benefits of each.




Session: WFF

RF Acoustic for Mobile Communication: Challenges and Modern Solutions


 Andreas Tag; Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg


 Clemens Ruppel; TDK Corporation


The demand for higher data rates and higher data volume results in higher usage of the available frequency spectrum. This means that more discrete frequency bands are used in today's cell phones compared to the past. And this results in RF front-ends with higher complexity and more discrete filter functions, which are typically implemented as acoustic filters due to their high Q factors. To meet these requirements novel materials, processing technologies, design methods and packaging techniques for acoustic wave devices had to be introduced. To meet future needs further innovations are required. This workshop will discuss the recent advancements in leading-edge technologies and define the future requirements together with possible solutions. Especially, recent achievements in SAW and BAW filter, duplexer, multiplexer technologies and RF front-end architectures will be highlighted, emerging acoustic thin film packaging techniques, temperature compensated and tunable acoustic wave devices will be outlined, and finally novel design methodologies will be discussed.




Advanced Design and Architecture of Next Generation RF Modems and Front-ends

Dr. Gernot Hueber; NXP Semiconductors Austria

The growing demand for higher and higher data rates and data traffic volume have been the main driver for the evolution of 3GPP cellular standards, that allow to provide this performance to the user. To meet those demands, the UE will need to evolve in the future to support the different HSPA configurations required, such as: DC-HSDPA, DC-HSDPA operation together with dual-band or MIMO, DC-HSUPA, HSDPA with MIMO, and LTE with carrier aggregation.
In this presentation we will focus on the architectural challenges and system requirements to cover all those evolved UE configurations and what it will impose on the multi-radio transceivers and the front-ends.




A Snapshot in Time: The Future in Filters for Cell Phones

Dr. Rich Ruby; Avago Technologies, USA

The phenomenal growth in cell phones and the recent and rapid adaption of Smart Phones has been recognized by all. What has not been articulated is that underlying the growth in Smart Phones is a larger growth and demand for filters and duplexers in the Smart Phone. Due to the demand of LTE 4G (and the future adaption of 5G), the number of filters needed in these phones has exploded. The driving forces behind the current and future demand for more bands in a phone are more data and faster delivery of data. This has led to the introduction of new bands, the introduction of Carrier Aggregation (combining existing bands), MIMO, Diversity and other filter intensive solutions to address the demand for increased data rates. And, whereas many of the components 'Count' in a Smart phone remains constant (e.g. the screen), the number of filters has gone from less than 10 per phone in the early 2000 to 2006 time frame to greater than 60 today and moving towards 100+ in the future. This talk will explore where this demand will be coming from and what will drive the new and tougher specifications for future filters.




Innovative and well-established approaches for designing acoustic duplexers and multiplexers

Dr. Andreas Link; TriQuint Semiconductor, Germany

State-of-the-art mobile devices contain more than a dozen FDD acoustic duplexers and at least as many TDD, WLAN and Rx diversity single acoustic filters. Furthermore, carrier aggregation (CA) is driving additional requirements for new quad-, penta- and hexplexers that will be used in next generation mobile phones capable of LTE-Advanced. This session of the workshop is intended to provide an overview of recently developed design methodologies for acoustic single filters, duplexers and other multiplexers. We will take a look at a systematic and well-structured design approach including simple resonator models necessary for time-to-market filter development and the additional challenges associated with flip-chip technology. We will see that utilizing the "natural" impedance of acoustic filters leads to cutting-edge filter performance and serves as the best choice for PA co-design on RF modules. Finally, requirements for inter-band carrier aggregation will be discussed and appropriate, space-saving solutions will be presented.




New Generation of very low profile SAW, TC SAW and BAW Devices for Module Integration

Dr. Karl C. Wagner; Dr. Tobias Krems; and Peter Hagn; TDK Corporation, Munich, Germany

The seemingly insatiable hunger for higher transmission rates drives the integration of more and more RF frequency bands in mobile phones' RF transceiver. Consequently, not only the optimum electrical performance of filters and duplexers for all known 3GPP bands but also the miniaturization of their outer dimensions must be addressed continuously. Lately a further reduction of component heights is of high interest for "slim" application designs.
A recently introduced packaging technology for micro-acoustic components called TFAP is addressing these needs. TFAP (Thin Film Acoustic Package) is a wafer level package realizing a cavity package required for SAW and BAW resonators. Maximum component heights of 0.17 millimeter without bumps (0.24 millimeter with bumps) with bump pitches down to 200 micrometer are achieved for standard SAW, temperature compensated SAW (TC-SAW) and SMR-based BAW filters and duplexers packaged in TFAP. Examples demonstrating also the latest status of chip technologies will be given.




Micro acoustic and MEMS device behavioral models in heterogeneous RF system design

Prof. Georg Fischer1; Klemens Brückner2; 1Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 2Technische Universität Ilmenau

Micro acoustic and micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) devices bear great potential in addressing the demands of future radio frequency (RF) circuits, e.g., for mobile communications, in providing basic functions, such as oscillating, switching, amplifying, and controlling at high frequencies. For efficient system design and simulation of complex RF systems, behavioral system level models of the micro acoustic and MEMS devices have to be available. Thus, the focus on RF-MEMS is steered away from the technology and single-device optimization level to an application-oriented system level. The design of such systems combined from micro-electronic and micro-mechanic elements which demands novel design strategies and tailored circuit technologies referred to as "RF micromechatronics". The talk presents the utilization of behavioral models for bulk acoustic wave (BAW), piezoelectric MEMS resonators, and MEMS switches in the design of an exemplary LTE receiver architecture where common software tools for circuit design as Keysight Techologies Advanced Design System (ADS) and Cadence Virtuoso are employed for system simulation and optimization by directly influencing mechanical device design parameters. To realize this fundamental approach, a novel substrate technology that merges silicon and ceramic technologies into a novel compound substrate (SiCer) is introduced for the RF compatible simultaneous implementation and co-integration of micro-electronic and micro-mechanic devices based RF systems.




Tunable RF filters and trends in system architecture: A reality check

Dr. Robert Aigner; TriQuint Semiconductor, USA

The presentation reviews the leading trends in the RF front-end of smartphones. The perpetual challenge of multi-band/multi-standard solutions is to pack additional bands into the same footprint while also improving performance from one generation to the next. Are tunable filters THE answer? No, not anytime soon. Part 1 is a summary of realistic requirements for a 'hypothetical' tunable RF filter to cover multiple bands and thus displace both switches and regular filters/duplexers. Part 2 reviews the changes in system architecture required to address LTE Carrier Aggregation (CA). Multiple bands in simultaneous operation on a single antenna result in a large number of additional requirements for filters and duplexers. Isolation, loss and linearity are amongst the hardest to meet. With RF front-ends about to become more complex than ever, does this mean tunable filters are THE future? Maybe; it depends.




Tunable RF SAW/BAW Filters: What is Possible and What is NOT?

Ken-ya Hashimoto1; Tetsuya Kimura2; Takeshi Matsumura3; Hideki Hirano4; Michio Kadota4; Shuji Tanaka4; Masayoshi Esashi4,5; 1Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Chiba Japan, 2Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Kyoto, Japan, 3National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Kanagawa, Japan, 4Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Miyagi, Japan, 5Advanced Institute for Materials Research (WPI-AIMR), Tohoku University, Miyagi, Japan

This talk is aimed at discussing possibilities of tunable radio frequency (RF) surface and bulk acoustic wave (SAW/BAW) filters with skillful use of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technologies. First, it is shown why RF tunable filters are demanded in current wireless communications, and various RF tunable filters are surveyed and compared. It is also discussed why such devices have not been widely
used. Then tunable RF SAW/BAW filters combing with the MEMS technologies are presented, and it is shown how high performances are expected provided that some key technologies are developed. Finally, a research project called "hetero-integration" conducted by the authors are introduced, and we show what become possible by combining MEM technologies with RF SAW/BAW technologies.




New Temperature Compensation / High Coupling Factor Materials for RF Acoustic Filters and Duplexers

Masanori Ueda; TAIYO YUDEN Co.

Temperate coefficient of frequency (TCF), coupling factor (K2) and quality factor (Q) are very key parameters on acoustic filters and duplexers. In this session, I will introduce our original two technologies on Lo-TCF and Hi-K2 which give devices big impact. Temperature compensated acoustic devices have been realized by improving temperature coefficient of velocity (TCV) or thermal expansion coefficient (TEC). We have proposed F-doped SiO2 material which improves TCV very effectively. We analyzed the material properties and demonstrated the effectiveness of it employing SAW devices. AlN is widely used in BAW devices as a piezoelectric material for mobile applications. The latest notable thing on material research proposed by some groups is Sc-doped with Hi-K2. We have been developing co-doped AlN theoretically and experimentally from another point of view, and we successfully have developed new materials (Mg-Zr or Mg-Hf-doped AN) with higher K2 than that of AlN.




Panel of all speakers

The panel is based on the speakers and the audience. Question sheets will be collected prior to the podium.




Session: WFG

Advances in Resonant and non-Resonant Power Combiners


 Giuseppe Macchiarella, Politecnico di Milano, Italy


 Aly E. Fathy, University of Tennesse


Power combiners are widely used in many microwave circuit applications. In particular, the recent evolution of communication systems has pushed the development of higher power, and more efficient devices that are suitable to operate with solid-state devices and up to millimeter wave frequencies. This workshop covers the latest progress in developing both resonant and non-resonant power combiners. In the latter class recent investigations have been concerned with splitters/combiners using various techniques like radial and conical combiners, and quasi-optical techniques. Other concerns include reduced circuitry size, ease and cost of fabrication like in SIW implementation).
Resonant combiners are traditionally constituted by filters suitably interconnected, whose task is to divide or recombine frequency channels (e.g. duplexers, triplexers, etc.). Lately, the modern communication systems call for additional tasks, making the design of these devices more and more complex and challenging. Examples of requested additional tasks are: multiband operation, reconfiguration capability, multiple manifold, matching requirements both in passbands and stopbands. In this workshop we present some promising design solutions adopted for realizing these new types of devices. Moreover, some practical implementations adopted (or being adopted) for resonant combiners in space and mobile communications systems of the latest generation are illustrated.




Direct synthesis of Diplexer-Multiplexer (40m.)

K.L. Wu; The Chinese University of Hong Kong

This presentation will introduce a direct approach to the synthesis of a diplexer or a multiplexer that consists of general Chebyshev band pass filters using an iterative approach. The approach is based on the concept of synthesizing a band pass filter with a frequency variant complex load. Having satisfied the three necessary conditions that stipulate the characteristic polynomials associated to the requirement of each channel filter, an optimal circuit model for each channel filter, together with either the length of the waveguide between a waveguide junction and the waveguide channel filter or a star-junction model for shunt LC resonator type of channel filters, can be generated iteratively and systematically. The approach will be taught in a simple technical language and illustrated with a large number of practical design examples, including waveguide type of diplexers, coaxial type of diplexers with a resonant type of junction and a triplexer with a non-resonant type of junction.




Manifold Multiplexer Design

M. Yu; ComDev Ltd, Cambridge, Canada (40m.)

The history of passive components for satellite payloads extends back many years with the invention of dual mode filters, switches, dielectric resonator filters and temperature compensated multiplexers. As a result payload architectures have evolved to the characteristics specific to these advances with ever increasing number of channels and some flexibility. The need for flexibility and mass/size reduction with ever increasing power demand is implicit for the rapidly emerging new satellite system. At same time, ground based wireless system also evolved to require more sophisticated multiplexer technology. This talk overviews some recent key component developments primarily in the areas of manifold multiplexers, addressing improvements in aspects such as flexibility, high power filtering, mass/size/insertion loss reduction. Some initial ideas for providing a level of flexibility to multi-beam payloads in the near term were identified with examples. These solutions are based on combining largely existing hardware with some new developments.




Combiners for base stations of mobile communications (40m.)

S. Tamiazzo1; G. Macchiarella2; 1Commscope, Italy, 2Politecnico di Milano, Italy

In recent years, requirement for antenna line devices to be used in base stations for mobile communication have undergone a twofold path: on one hand, selectivity and insertion loss requirement have become more and more stringent. On the other hand the complexity (in terms of number of filters and ports) of such devices has increased beyond the typical duplexer structure. This is caused by the increasing need for capacity in restricted spectral bandwidth and results in several cellular communication system sharing the same site including, where possible, feeder cables and antennas (this being driven by economic and environmental considerations as well). To cope with this, a number of new filter-based antenna line devices have emerged. Some of those devices will be discussed in this workshop.




Directional and miniature ceramic filters (25m.)

I. Hunter; The University of Leeds, West Yorkshire, UK

Recent advances in the design of highly selective directional filters and miniature ceramic bandpass filters used in combiner systems for mobile communications base stations will be described. This will include discussion of synthesis techniques and physical realizations.




Multiplexers for space application (40m.)

C. Ernst; TEC-ETM ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherland

Multiplexers are key components in today's communication satellites. In conventional payloads, Input Multiplexers and Output multiplexers tend to be of medium to large size with up to 20 channels. In modern Multibeam Ka-band satellites the number of multiplexed channels is smaller, but often in excess of 100 units are needed. Over the past years significant progress has been achieved to match increasing channel power levels and the demand for lower mass and smaller footprint. In this talk recent ESA supported developments are presented and significant achievements highlighted. Combined with the consideration of different payload architectures the will allow to derive future development needs of fixed frequency and reconfigurable multiplexer for space application.




Reconfigurable Multiplexers

A. Morini; Università Politecnica delle Marche, Italy

This talk discusses the implementation of tunable waveguide multiplexers. The target is represented by multiplexers with reconfigurable bandwidth and channel center frequency. Reconfiguration of each channel filter is realized by cascading a quasi-low pass block with a quasi-high pass block with variable center frequencies. For combining the channel filters the solution adopted allows to remove the degrading effect due to the reciprocal interactions of the filters. Some design examples illustrate the performance of the new reconfigurable configuration.




Recent Advances in Conical Transmission Line Power Combiners

D. De Villiers; University of Stellenbosch, Johannesburg, South Africa

AXIALLY symmetric N-way power combiners offer a number of advantages over conventional corporate and chain combiners when N is large. These advantages include higher combining efficiencies due to reduced insertion loss and improved amplitude and phase balance, as well as a reduced physical size and weight. With few exceptions, these types of combiners have traditionally been difficult to design, and normally a combination of electromagnetic field analysis and empirical techniques based on measurements are required. With the advent and continued improvement of 3D electromagnetic modeling software, the analyses and simplified design approaches of many variations based on radial, coaxial and conical transmission lines have been developed. This talk will discuss a basic background on axially symmetric combiners and the various types in use, as well as present the basic design techniques. An important issue, often misunderstood, with these reactive structures is the effect of higher order modes. The two main effects (isolation and bandwidth limitations) of these modes will by illustrated by full wave simulation models.




Quasi-Optical and circuit level power combining structures

A. Mortazawi1; R. York2; 1University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA, 2University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA

Output power of Solid-state devices decreases as their frequency of operation approaches the millimeter-wave region. Furthermore, most communications and radar systems require much more power than is available or expected from a single solid-state device. Conventional power combining techniques are not applicable at millimeter-wave frequencies due to their inherent losses. In this talk circuit level and spatial power combiners for the design of microwave and millimeter-wave power amplifiers will be presented. Circuit Level combiners based on The extended resonance and stacked devices will be discussed. Furthermore the design of spatial power combining amplifier arrays will be presented. These amplifiers are intended to replace Traveling Wave Tubes at Ka-band (26 GHz to 40 GHz) and W-band (75 GHz to 110 GHz). The highlight of our work is a 25W amplifier array at Ka-band developed through our collaboration with Lockheed/Martin Corp. Important issues such as uniform excitation and tolerance to multiple device failures will also be explored.




Combiners in Substrate-Integrated Waveguide Technology

J. Bornemann1; U. Rosemberg2; M. Salehi3; S. Amari4; 1University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada, 2Mician Global Engineering GbR, Bremen, Germany, 3University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, 4Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, Canada

Multi-port power combiners are widely employed in modern communications systems in order to facilitate the combination of several high power signals, Butler matrices and beam forming networks within antenna subsystems. Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology is a low-cost realization of traditional waveguide circuits that inherits the merits from both traditional microstrip technology for easy planar circuit integration and waveguide for low radiation loss and high quality factor. This presentation discusses the design and implementation of SIW combiners in various configurations. Starting from simple SIW divider networks, combiners as couplers with filtering capabilities are introduced. The main part is devoted to multi-port combiners with inherent bandpass filter characteristics. The design concept is introduced with respect to typical combiner performance expectations as well as the possibility of enhancing filtering characteristics within the combiner function. Performance comparisons between various full-wave field solvers as well as measurements of most combiner networks validate the combiner design procedures.




Waveguide Radial Combiners

G. M. Hegazi1; R. Kazemi2; A. Fathy31Aethercomm Inc., Carlsbad, CA, USA, 2University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran, 3University of Tennessee

The development of an X-band all waveguide radial power divider/combiner for high power applications is presented here. A TE10 mode in the input rectangular waveguide is efficiently converted into TE01 circular waveguide mode which is needed to in-phase feed the peripheral output waveguides ports. The mode transducer is composed of a power divider section and a mode converting section, which is connected to a 12-way radial power combiner section at the center. The mechanical structure of the mode converter feed, the choice of the matching post dimensions at the center of the radial, the radial line inner and outer diameter are the challenging tasks of this design. A prototype has been successfully fabricated and tested. Back-to-back transmission for both mode transducer and radial divide were measured as well. The achieved return loss of the full structure is better than 10 dB and the insertion loss is below 0.4 dB over the desired bandwidth of 10%.




SIW Splitters for low cost mm-wave antenna arrays

S. Safavi-Naeini 1 and Wael M. Abdel-Wahab1,2,3,  1Centre for Intelligent Antenna and Radio Systems (CIARS) , University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, 2C-COM Satellite Systems Inc., Ottawa, ON. , Canada, 3Electronic Research Institute (ERI) , Cairo,  Egypt

Substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) technology has become a highly promising approach for the development of low cost circuits and components for a number of emerging microwave and millimeter-wave applications. More specifically, SIW splitter/combiners are proposed and being increasingly used as a feeding network for array antennas replacing traditional metallic feeding network. It significantly enhances the antenna overall radiation efficiency by reducing the feed network conductor loss. SIW structures are generally fabricated by using two rows of conducting vias in a dielectric substrate, connecting two parallel metal plates, and permitting the integration of rectangular waveguide components in planar form, along with printed circuitry (active devices and antennas). In this presentation, the SIW technology is reviewed and its application to microwave/millimeter-wave power combiners/splitters, with particular emphasis on low loss hybrid-feeding network for large array structures. The SIW splitters can also be integrated and hybridized with other types of planar lines and waveguides. A hybrid SIW/planar-line feed network for a high performance Ka-band satellite communication applications will be presented. The simulated and experimental results proves the usefulness of this technology and its scalability for large structures.



WFG-12 Theoretical Design and Realization of Variable-Impedance Microstrip Wilkinson and Bagley Power Dividers with Enhanced Electrical and Physical Features

Khair A. Alshamaileh1; Vijay K. Devabhaktuni1; and Nihad I. Dib2; 1University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA, 2Jordan Univ. of Science & Technology, Jordan.

The continuous advances in modern microwave subsystems, adjoined with the ever-growing demand on developing efficient and reliable front-end radios, are steering the torque of current research towards an uprising era of innovational applications, such as high data rate transmissions, through-the-wall imaging, and medical treatments. Similarly, a cognitive radio, which is considered as one of the promising communication schemes especially in enhancing access to the radio spectrum (EARS), takes a noticeable advantage of such a blast. The operation mechanism can be described by dedicating the temporarily unallocated frequencies to other secondary users as long as the "legitimate" users are in no need to transmit/receive data. Consequently, and in order to realize such a mechanism, cognitive radios crucially require front-end microwave components with customizable features for the sake of spectrum scanning with an intention of determining inactive frequency band(s). Power dividers, in general, are one of the key-components that reserve a clear importance in the progression of this arena. Recent investigations, thus, were redeployed in the direction of proposing splitters/combiners with advanced electrical characteristics (e.g., multi- and broad-band operation, unequal power division) and physical properties (e.g., reduced circuitry size, ease and cost of fabrication). Based on the abovementioned challenges, we propose different Wilkinson and Bagley power dividers with optimized electrical performance and compact easy-to-fabricate planar structures. Inspired by the concept of non-uniform transmission line (NTL) profiles, miniaturized multi-frequency and ultra-wideband (UWB) equal/unequal split power dividers are presented. Designs' verifications are established with the aid of analytical calculations and professional full-wave simulations. Further validations are performed through fabrications and measuring the scattering parameters of the proposed layouts.




Session: WFH

Wireless Power Transmission and Scavenging


 Amir Mortazawi, University of Michigan


 Jenshan Lin, University of Florida


Research and development in wireless power transmission and harvesting has grown rapidly over the past decade. Current commercial methods of wireless power transfer include near-field coupling for high power vehicle applications, lower power inductive charging, far-field power beaming and power harvesting to for embedded or hard to reach sensors. In this workshop the roadmap evolution for wireless power transmission and harvesting are presented. The transmission efficiency, transmission range and power handling capability are some of the key aspects of wireless power transmission systems that will be examined. The effective use and recycling of electromagnetic energy critical for operation of wireless energy harvesting devices and systems are also discussed. Other important issues that will be detailed include: electric vehicles charging, multiple devices charging, communication and controlling strategy for smart charging, EMC and human body protection regulations.




Wireless Power Transmission for Handsets

Kamil Grajski; QUALCOMM

This talk will provide a case study of how technical standards development within industry consortia is driving the transition of wireless power transfer technology from laboratory to market. The focus will be on wireless charging of portable consumer electronic devices. The talk will survey the active major industry consortia and global standards development organizations. We will discuss system reference models, magnetics and signalling requirements, interface specifications and organizing to meet the challenges of commercial certification and test. The talk will conclude by considering the applicability of the industry consortium approach to the multiplicity of wireless power transmission applications, such as energy harvesting, medical devices and electric vehicles.




Wireless Charging Technologies to Win Over the Consumer

Patrick S. Riehl; Mediatek, Massachusetts

Despite the relative maturity of the technology, wireless charging has not yet reached a tipping point of mass consumer adoption. In this workshop we will look at some candidate technologies that could shift the balance from being a novelty to a must-have feature. Multi-device chargers, multi-mode devices and wearable computing applications will be discussed, among others. We will work through some practical design examples at the circuit and system level to illustrate the challenges involved in enhancing the benefits of wireless charging for consumers.




Over-Moded Cavity for Scalable Simultaneous Wireless Charging of Multiple Electronic Devices

Zoya Popovic; University of Colorado, Boulder

Research and development in wireless powering devices has grown rapidly in popularity over the past decade. Current commercial methods of wireless power transfer include near-field coupling for high power vehicle applications, lower power inductive charging, far-field power beaming mostly for space applications, and far-field scavenging/harvesting to power embedded or hard to reach sensors that cannot easily have a battery changed. This talk discusses a shielded over-moded cavity for wirelessly powering multiple electronic devices simultaneously. As an example, a cavity approximately 7 by 10 by 16 free-space wavelengths is demonstrated for 10-GHz powering with a sub-watt transmitter. Methods to increase power density uniformity within the cavity are presented, including mechanical stirring, conductive and absorptive object loading, and frequency modulation. A statistical propagation model is developed for conductive and absorptive object loading to estimate power uniformity available in the cavity and the model is validated against measurements. The device-under-charge (DUT) consisting of a rectenna, microcontroller, power management circuit, solid-state battery, and ISM-band wireless transceiver is used to validate the study by monitoring the battery charging at various locations within the cavity. The demonstrated shielded three-dimensional charging method is scalable in frequency, volume, power, and number of devices that can be charged.




Circuit-level design of systems integrating wireless power transfer and sensors read-out

Alessandra Costanzo; Riccardo Trevisan; DEI University of Bologna, Italy

The great evolution of pervasive sensors technology has recently become attractive in industrial plants for monitoring several parameters in harsh environments. Indeed for industrial machinery applications, contactless sensor communication, combined with wireless inductive power transfer (WIPT), is seen as a great opportunity to optimize the productivity of the machine and reduce its maintenance. This is for example the case of power supplying rotary machineries with parameters of the remote branches to be monitored. RFID technology is a good candidate for solving this problem. In this talk we discuss an innovative design solution able to integrate LF contactless energy transfer and RF data transfer. We demonstrate the co-existence of high wireless power transfer and NFC communication for temperature sensor read-out. The nonlinear behavior of the RF-to-DC rectifier of a passive RFID is used for powering the sensor operations as well as for reading its activities, with no need for extra electronics at the RFID tag side to control the sensor readout.
System optimization and integration issues will be discussed and the operations of a prototype for 1 kW power transfer and for temperature monitoring is demonstrated.




Wireless Power Transmission: From Far-Field to Near-Field

Jenshan Lin; University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

Recently, the interest in wireless power or wireless charging has been growing rapidly. Many researchers and engineers who used to work on different fields are now joining this topic. In the second talk, I will present an overview of wireless power transmission including far field microwave power transmission and near field magnetic coupling. The advantages and disadvantages of each will be discussed, and I will explain why the near field wireless power transfer is a better choice for charging consumer electronic devices and where/when the far-field microwave power transmission will be needed. A few examples demonstrated by my group, including wirelessly charging a laptop computer, will be shown.




Special Designed Waveforms for Wireless Power Transmission

Nuno Borges Carvalho; Institute of Telecommunications, University of Aveiro

In this talk we expect to discuss and explain how to design special signals to improve RF-DC conversion efficiency and DC voltage. In this approach the talk will be focus on multi-sine, and multi-carrier modulated waveforms for the improvement of RF-DC characteristics, a brief example will also be showed during the presentation.




Harvesting ambient RF energy with emerging rectifier technology
Simon Hemour; Ke Wu; Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Canada

After reviewing the potential sources from which originate the ambient energy, this talk will describe a selection of different rectifier diodes technologies, along with their evolution roadmap. The rectifier circuit architecture will be investigated for different scenario, toward the effective use and recycling of such an ambient electromagnetic energy. Metrics will be given to quickly evaluate the environment in which the application (e.g. IoT) is to be deployed. Some hybrid energy harvesting scheme will also be described, along with a discussion on the choice of the operating frequency.

WFH-8 Simultaneous Wireless Power Transfer and ZigBee Wireless Communication at Same Frequency Band
Naoki Shinohara; University of Kyoto

ZigBee sensor network, which requires low power only, is one of hopeful applications of a wireless power transfer (WPT) via radio waves. In order to reduce frequency cost, we propose a simultaneous WPT whose wireless power is intermittently transmitted during sleeping time of wireless communication of the ZigBee at same frequency band, 2.45GHz. The wireless power is synchronized with the wireless communication without any extra revise of the ZigBee wireless communication. We also developed a suitable rectenna, rectifying antenna, to drive the ZigBee sensor.

WFH-9 High Power and High Efficiency Wireless Power Transfer Technology for Automotive Applications
Joungho Kim; KAIST Korea

Wireless power transfer technologies can provide us a freedom from hardwired connectivity when using electrical powers for mobile platforms, home appliances, and automotive vehicles. Furthermore, we can reduce the cost of system power wirings, and will be able to reduce capacity and weight of batteries. Among the various wireless power transfer technologies, resonant magnetic field can offer not only the highest power transfer efficiency, but also the higher wireless transmission power in near field distance, especially suitable for automotive wireless power charging applications.

WFH-10 Ambient RF Power Harvesting for Low Power Sensors
Amir Mortazawi; University of Michigan

Wireless power harvesting (WPH) refers to the technologies that allow the radiated EM energy (from radio and TV stations, cell phone towers, etc.) to be collected for battery-less operation of various devices. Applications benefitting from WPH include structural health monitoring, large-terrain information gathering systems, Internet of Things, etc. In this talk, the design of efficient WPH systems based on detailed modeling of rectifying circuits operating at low RF power levels is discussed. Nonlinear properties of rectifiers around their threshold voltage are characterized and closed form equations for predicting the rectification efficiency, output power, and optimum matching network requirements are developed. Example of RF power harvesting circuits that can operate at very low power levels are presented.




Session: WFI

EM-Based Tuning Techniques, Computer-Aided Tuning and Tuning Space Mapping


 Qingsha S. Cheng, SUSTC, China


 John W. Bandler, Bandler Corporation, Canada


Fast pre-production and post-production tuning of complex microwave and RF filters is highly desired by the microwave industry. In this workshop we discuss three state-of-the-art tuning methodologies, EM-based simulator tuning (port tuning), computer-aided tuning, and tuning space mapping. Through explanation by experts, attendees will not only learn the techniques but also understand the fundamental commonality among the techniques—how existing knowledge and expertise are enhanced and updated in these processes. EM-based tuning techniques or port tuning techniques insert circuit elements into the tuning ports of an EM simulated device to achieve fast tuning. Computer-aided tuning automatically tunes a device with the help of a circuit-based model. Tuning space mapping uses a tuning model to aid the design of an EM simulated device. Circuit model extraction, calibration, and optimization algorithms may be used in each of the techniques. Comparisons are given among the techniques. Examples and tutorials of tuning (or design of) various filters are shown to illustrate the effectiveness of the techniques.




Industrial Applications for EM Optimization, Space Mapping and Tuning

Peter Thoma; CST AG, Germany

Designing electromagnetic components and systems for highly competitive markets requires cost efficient development processes. Simulation driven design techniques allow for an efficient virtual prototyping by reducing the need for expensive and time-consuming creation of physical test samples. Very often, simulation is used for verification and trouble-shooting at the very end of the design process. In addition, simulation in combination with computer based optimization strategies can also be applied in very early design stages in order to speed up the process to develop an optimal solution. This presentation will show for a number of examples how electromagnetic simulation can be applied at various stages of the design process. In this context, it will also be demonstrated how a variety of different optimization methods can be used and even combined together in order to deliver better designs in less time.




The Use of Filter Tuning Techniques in EM-Based Design of Filters

Raafat R. Mansour; University of Waterloo, Canada

Over the past years, several computer-aided tuning (CAT) techniques have been developed for refining the filter performance. Typically, the measured results obtained by the network analyzer are linked to a CAT algorithm to determine the next tuning step. The same concept can be potentially used in EM-based design of filters by replacing the network analyzer by an accurate EM simulator. In this case, the algorithm will guide the designer to the next step in the design. The process can be linked to a space mapping technique to yield an accurate and efficient approach for filter design. The talk will present various techniques for computer-aided tuning of filters that can be efficiently linked to EM simulators for filter design.




Fast Surrogate-Assisted Optimization and Fine-Tuning of Compact Microwave Structures

Slawomir Koziel; Reykjavik University, Iceland

In this talk, a methodology for low-cost simulation-driven design optimization and fine tuning of highly miniaturized microwave structures is discussed. The first stage of the design process involves fast concurrent optimization of geometrically dependent, but electromagnetically isolated cells of the decomposed structure of interest. The cross-coupling effects between the cells are taken into account in the second stage, where a surrogate-assisted fine-tuning procedure is executed. The tuning process is based on space-mapping-enhanced low-fidelity model of the entire structure. The latter is constructed by cascading local response surface approximations (RSAs) of the relevant building blocks. The technique is demonstrated through the design of two compact branch-line couplers (BLCs) with optimized designs obtained at the computational cost corresponding to a few EM simulations of the respective BLC. Comparison of numerical results with several surrogate-based design approaches as well as experimental verification of the final designs are also provided.




Robust Optimization Based Filter Design and EM Port Tuning

Dan Swanson and Bob Wenzel; SW Filter Design, USA

Every general purpose microwave circuit simulator offers the user several optimization methods. These general purpose optimizers do not take advantage of the unique response characteristics of a microwave filter. We will demonstrate a specialized filter optimization engine that runs on top of AWR Microwave Office®. This optimizer captures poles and zeroes in the passband of the filter and finds an exact equal ripple response. We can optimize any valid filter topology that can be described in Microwave Office. In addition, if we start with a Chebyshev prototype, we can "grow" cross-couplings into the filter network via optimization without doing any synthesis. The same optimization engine can also be used when we port tune an S-parameter file produced by an EM simulation of our actual filter geometry.




Tuning Space Mapping: The State of the Art

Qingsha S. Cheng; SUSTC, China

The electromagnetic-simulator-based tuning process for rapid microwave design combines electromagnetic accuracy with circuit-design speed. Our approach is based on the idea of "space mapping" and the electromagnetic port-tuning technique. In this presentation, we explain the art of microwave design optimization through "tuning space mapping" procedures. Tuning space mapping exploits tuning models as surrogates. We categorize these tuning models into four main types. We demonstrate the implementation of these types through a simple bandstop filter. We provide application examples corresponding to these types utilizing commercial simulation software. Our purpose is to help microwave engineers understand the tuning space mapping methodology and to inspire new implementations and applications.




A Brief History of Tuning: From Design Centering to Space Mapping

John W. Bandler; McMaster University/Bandler Corporation, Canada

CAD techniques for design centering and tolerance assignment—yield-driven design—can be traced back decades. The discipline was expanded to include statistical parameter variations and postproduction tunable parameters at the design stage. Benchmark theoretical contributions in the microwave arena included model uncertainties and mismatched terminations. Simultaneously, algorithms appeared for computer-aided alignment and tuning, particularly for filters and waveguide multiplexers, leading towards full automation of tuning processes at the postproduction stage. In the late 1980's, the Raytheon/Texas Instruments MIMIC program spurred significant relevant software development. The 1990's saw the emergence of space mapping technology that allows fast design optimizations of circuits with full-wave electromagnetic simulator accuracy. Later, tuning space mapping methodologies appeared. Like conventional tuning, space mapping approaches fully exploit the engineer's traditional intuition. This presentation will put these historical developments into a modern context.




High-power Filter Design Using Space Mapping Principles

Dieter Pelz; RFS, Australia

High-power tunable RF bandpass filters for broadcast application must fulfill very tight selectivity mask specifications over a relatively wide tuning range. Furthermore, the freedom of choosing topologies and filter degree usually does not exist and filter selectivity is exploited to a maximum. Sub-structures of high-power filters are not conveniently small compared to the wavelength, introducing a further design challenge. The design process must therefore be more accurate than what is typically required for fixed frequency, low-power filters. Frequency dependencies play a much bigger role here than usual. Coarse filter models with enhanced complexity are used in order to cater for the required higher accuracy. Relationships between Eigenmode solver models of filter sub-structures and the overall filter model are to be taken into account in a streamlined and fast converging design process. Areas of design accuracy enhancement will be shown and explained. Information on achievable design accuracy will be provided. Design examples will be presented.




Miniaturization and Optimization of Microstrip Filters using EM-based port Tuning Techniques

David Bates; DLI a division of Knowles Corp, USA.

Microstrip microwave filters are some of the more technically challenging cases for application of EM-based port tuning resulting from their Hi-Q resonant nature and close physical proximity of their elements. Both intended and un-intended couplings are present in most designs, which require EM analysis and optimization of the design. Optimization of designs is far faster using internal ports for tuning. Internal port de-embedding has advanced in accuracy levels and solution speed making this is a "must have" tool for filters, components and MMIC design. The port tuning technique will be demonstrated in the miniaturization of a microstrip filter, and modelled versus measured data presented.




Session: WFJ

Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields (nsPEF) – from modeling to applications: biology, medicine, plasma and apparatus


 Philippe Leveque, XLIM, CNRS-University of Limoges


 Delia Arnaud-Cormos, XLIM, CNRS-University of Limoges


Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) of megavolt-per-meter intensity are used in many promising plasma, environmental or biomedical applications. NsPEF have been shown to trigger functional changes in biological cells (e.g. Human cells), without permanent damage of the cell outer membrane. To investigate the physical mechanisms involved in pore initiation, molecular dynamics (MD) has emerged as a powerful numerical tool. To achieve nsPEF with MV/m field strength, appropriate exposure systems i.e. generators, delivery systems, measurement devices must be used, and constructing exposure systems for electropermeabilization with nsPEF remains challenging. Nanosecond repetitive pulsed plasma discharges (NRPD) are currently being explored as a mean of generating diffuse plasma. This workshop will cover state-of-the-art research on nsPEF from modeling to applications: biology, medicine, plasma, and apparatus. The workshop aims at opening new perspectives and promoting the involvement of the IMS MTT Community in the nsPEF research for biomedical and plasma applications.




nsPEF exposure systems for in vitro and in vivo bio-experiments

Francesca Apollonio; Sapienza University of Rome, Italy

To study of the effects of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) action on biological samples, relevant for promising bio-medical treatments (e.g. cancer, neuronal-stimulation, inflammations, cicatrization processes), a controlled electromagnetic (EM) exposure is required, and hence suitable exposure setups to pursue reliable experimentation both in vitro and in vivo (laboratory animals) are mandatory. Biological experiments with short electric pulses have been studied for a long time and one of the most used exposure setups consisted in the so called electroporation cuvette for in vitro experiments, while planar or needles electrodes, for in vivo samples. Such structures, acting as a sort of capacitors, provide constant, non-propagative and high electric fields, which consequently polarize the bio-samples under analysis. Due to their intrinsic non-propagative nature, these setups resulted matched only up to few MHz producing large reflections and power losses when pulses shorter than 10 ns have to be used. In very recent bio-experiments where pulses of few nanosecond or even sub-nanoseconds started to be used and investigated, this item became evident. Moreover, looking at the growing interest in precisely understand the action mechanism of nsPEF down to single cell compartment (e.g. the plasma membrane), setups able to precisely expose even a single cell are strongly required.
To face the challenging issues concerning either the single cell exposure or the in vitro and in vivo experiments with nsPEF shorter than 10 ns, it seems interesting to consider the performances of classical propagating microwave structures (e.g. coplanar waveguide, microstriplines) or antennas (e.g. rectangular patches) matched on an extremely large frequency band (DC to few GHz). The functioning of such structures have to be verified and deeply characterized in order to respond to specific and stringent requirements as: broad band matching up to few GHz, high electric field amplitudes (up to MV/m) with good homogeneity within the exposed bio-sample volumes, contemporary exposure of multiple samples, simple modalities of sample positioning and monitoring (e.g. temperature, microscope imaging), suitable shielding.
The workshop will cover all the problematic issues regarding the design of nsPEF exposure setups, as well as the dosimetric aspects (i.e. Specific absorption rate calculation) related to the nsPEF exposures of the various bio-samples.




Generation and characterization of nsPEF for biological and plasma applications

Delia Arnaud-Cormos; Xlim, CNRS-University of Limoges, France

To achieve nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) with MV/m field strength, appropriate exposure systems i.e. generators, delivery systems, measurement devices must be used. Generators that can produce powerful electrical pulses with adjustable duration, amplitude and shape are convenient but still unusual. Robust and versatile generators built on the frozen wave generator concept using photoconductive semiconductor switches will be presented. Bioelectromagnetic investigations are challenging because they are typically conducted in very small volume. They require the development of specific probes. This talk will concern measurements of high intensity nanosecond pulsed electric fields and temperature simultaneously measured using a unique electro-optic (EO) probe. A device for accurate electrical measurements for nanosecond repetitive pulsed discharges (NRPD) will also presented. The experimental setup developed is based on point-to-plane system integrated in a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell. For optimal energy transfer from the generator to the load, i.e. to the cells or tissues, special care must be taken to design devices compatible in terms of frequency bandwidth and impedance matching (typically 50 ohms). The talk will cover types of electrodes-based delivery systems for nsPEF applications.




Nanosecond transport through lipid bilayers and living cell membranes

P. Thomas Vernier; Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, USA

He will report recent results from studies of the restructuring of biological membranes by nanosecond pulsed electric fields, and the transport of ions and small molecules through electropermeabilized lipid bilayers and cell membranes. In this context he will discuss ongoing efforts to reconcile molecular simulations with continuum models of electroporation and with data generated in vitro and in vivo, in order to produce a robust, physics-based, quantitatively predictive model of electropermeabilization.




Megawatts from Millijoules: A Discussion on the Science and Engineering of Nanosecond Pulsed Power Devices and Their Application for Research into Nonequilibrium Phenomena

Jason Sanders; Transient Plasma Systems, Inc., USA

The ability of high power transients to produce states of nonequilibrium in complex systems is fundamental to a number of research topics across a wide variety of disciplines. In many instances, the physical effects of these states become more interesting as the pulse duration and pulse spacing become comparable to or less than relaxation times intrinsic to the system under test, and, similarly, when the peak power is sufficiently high to meet or exceed threshold conditions. The capabilities of systems designed to produce megawatt pulses with nanosecond or picosecond rise-time and duration are advancing, thanks in part to recent breakthroughs in the commercialization of high performance power electronics devices. In addition to presenting results from experimental research powered by these devices, this talk will address science and engineering topics important to the development of pulsed power systems, focusing on high level system architecture concepts as well as challenges associated with transmission and metrology for high power, broadband pulses.




On progress of spectroscopic investigations of nanosecond pulsed discharges

Gabi-Daniel Stancu; Ecole Centrale Paris, Laboratoire EM2C, CNRS, France

The potential of atmospheric pressure nanosecond pulsed discharges for ignition and stabilization of combustion, flow control, biomedical applications, decontamination and material processing has been demonstrated in numerous studies. Here nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges are generated in preheated nitrogen, air and air/methane flame environments. Investigations are carried out by optical emission spectroscopy and laser absorption and induced fluorescence techniques from UV to Mid-IR spectral domains. Insights of plasma kinetics, temperature and species production are presented.




Nanosecond Repetitive Pulsed Discharges (NRPD) in dielectric barrier discharge configuration

Francoise Massines; Promes, CNRS, University of Perpignan, France

In order to make antireflective and passivating coatings on silicon solar cells, a plasma reactor based on a dielectric barrier discharge has been developed with plane to plane configuration. The layer being SiN:H, the gas mixture is SiH4 and NH3 diluted in Ar to have the benefit of NH3 Penning ionization by Ar metastable.
At first the sinusoidal excitation frequency was fixed to sinusoidal low frequency excitation (50kHz) and a complete discharge study has been done in Ar/NH3 mixture showing that the discharge power is limited (3W/cm3) like growth rate. The power cannot be increased by voltage increase because of micro-discharges formation. As the energy per discharge is limited by the formation of microdischarges the best solution to increase the power must be to increase the frequency of excitation (>3MHz). Moreover, this solution should increase substrate temperature because of higher discharge power (36W/cm3).
Nanopulsed repetitive pulsed discharge (NRPD) allows to increase homogeneous discharge power until 17W/cm3 because impulsion time is shorter than microdischarge development. Moreover the short duty cycle (<1%) allow to prevent substrate heating while the growth rate can be similar to RF discharge for the same discharge power. Silicon nitride coating have been done in NRPD. Refractive index and surface passivation have been optimized for the application and show that we need to use less NH3 concentration to have the good thin film properties in comparison to sinusoidal excitation. The substrate is always cathode side where NH3+ flux is higher than sinusoidal excitation allow to reduce NH3/SiH4 ratio which control the refractive index. The coating is always homogeneous and dense but the substrate polarity are a great effect. In fact on anode side, powders appears and coating density and adhesion is lower than cathode side.
In conclusion, NRPD discharge allow to have a powerful discharge without substrate heating and growth rate similar to radiofrequency discharge. Silicon nitride layer have good properties for silicon solar cells.




Session: WFK

New Technology Developments for Space


 Nuno Borges Carvalho, IT-Universidade de Aveiro


 Steve Gao, University of Kent, UK


Rudy Emrick, Orbital Sciences


The use of microwaves in space applications is critical for the success of space missions. Microwaves are the base of earth-space communications, and in this sense satellite communications had become and will be the most reliable and low cost way for wireless communications for the masses. Recently the use of microwave signals to power up small space probes, or pico-satellites was also seen as a way to power up and allow better integration of those systems, with a huge cut in wires, and thus in weight.
In this workshop we will be addressing these different approaches to the use of microwaves in space and how those can become a reality in recent years. We will cover the use of GaN in the context of satellite systems, the design of millimeter-wave smart antennas for high-performance broadband mobile satellite communication systems, and the use of Software Defined Radio for Satellite transceivers in order to allow improved and more efficient satellite transponders and will address also the approach of electromagnetic energy harvesting and wireless power transmission to use in space environments.
It is expected that the audience understands the main novelties related to space communications in an integrated way and discusses future directions in this area




Market Trends and Key Technologies for Satellite Communications

Rudy Emrick; Orbital Sciences, USA

The growth in demand for broadband has been seen in satellite communications as it has in other aspects of the market. Satellites carry media content around the globe which includes satellite television, radio and broadband services directly to consumers. While the satellite industry is a relatively small percentage of the overall telecommunications industry, it's still a large market in terms of dollars. As in other areas of the telecommunications market, the market drivers have changed over time. Communications satellites are moving toward the realization of true high-throughput satellites (HTS), which can offer 2–20 times the total throughput of typical fixed satellite service that is offered today. The Internet protocol (IP) over satellite market is pushing this trend, and the move toward true HTS will allow the cost per megabyte to continue downward. In addition, there is also a great market potential for narrow-band machine-to-machine (MTM) applications as the costs in delivering data continue downward. These market changes and the ability to adapt to future market changes after a satellite is already in service have effected future satellite architectures and the key technologies needed to enable them. A detailed discussion of the key trends in markets, communication satellite architectures and enabling technologies will be given.




Millimeter-wave smart antennas for advanced satellite communications

Q. Luo; 1S. Gao; L. Zhang; D. Pham Minh; 1University of Kent, UK, 2Airbus, France

This talk will review some recent development worldwide in Ka-band smart antennas for satellite communications as well as show some results of case studies on this topic. First, it will give a review of recent development in Ka-band smart antennas for satellite communications. Then, two case studies will be presented, including one Ka-band fully integrated active phased array with wide-angle beam steering capabilities for satellite communications on the move, and one electronically beam-switching array-fed reflector antenna for advanced satellite communications. Design considerations of antenna elements and arrays in each of these case studies will be explained and discussed, and some results will be presented. A conclusion and future work will be given in the end.




Transmitters and SDR for SATCOM solutions

Nuno Carvalho; Pedro Cruz and Wonhoon Jang; Instituto de Telecomunicações, Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal

In this talk an overview of transmitter design for Satellite applications will be given, including software defined radio solutions that could be applied in space transceivers.
The system overview and solutions for high power transmitter design with controlled power beams with high efficiency solutions based on space power combination will be addressed stressing the main limitations of these solutions.




Potential space applications of two far-field and near-field WPT systems

Alessandra Costanzo; Diego Masotti; DEI University of Bologna, Italy

In this presentation we discuss in details WPT systems solutions for potential space applications exploiting both near-field and far-field techniques.
In particular a lightweight and low-power system, combining RF-ID and beam-forming technologies, is described in details able to selectively powering battery-less devices pervasively distributed in the ambient. This solution is presented as a feasible implementation of portable satellite environmental testing and monitoring, thus allowing sensors reading in locations difficult to access.
Subsequently a contactless system for high-power transfer (of the order of kW) is proposed as a reliable wireless transition in rotating joints, to get rid of wires, for both power transmission and data communication.
In both cases design issues and the adopted practical solutions are discussed based on a rigorous implementation of a circuit-level design of the entire system, combining nonlinear and electromagnetic simulation.




Recent developments and challenges in wireless power transfer and energy harvesting systems

Apostolos Georgiadis; Ana Collado, Centre Tecnologic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC), Barcelona, Spain

The presentation begins with an overview of energy harvesting technologies and discusses recent efforts integrating solar, thermal and electromagnetic energy harvesting modules. Challenges in combining with high efficiency different low power energy harvesting transducer outputs are addressed and examples are provided. Wireless power transfer systems are presented and the ability to improve the RF-DC power conversion efficiency of electromagnetic energy harvesting devices by tailoring the characteristics of the transmitted signals is discussed.




Microwave Energy Harvesting for Satellite Health Monitoring

A. Takacs1,2; H. Aubert1,3; S. Charlot1; S. Fredon4; D. Granena4; L. Despoisse5; H. Blondeaux5; 1CNRS, LAAS, Toulouse, France, 2Univ. de Toulouse, UPS, LAAS, Toulouse, France, 3Univ. de Toulouse, INP, LAAS, Toulouse, France, 4CNES (French Space Agency), Toulouse, France, 5Thales Alenia Space, Cannes, France

This presentation will address some recent advances concerning the energy harvesting of the spill-over losses of microwave antennas of broadcasting geostationary satellites. The targeted application concerns the development of autonomous (by energy harvesting) wireless sensor for structure health monitoring of satellite antenna panels.
First, the electromagnetic environment existing on satellite panels will be investigated. Then several rectennas/energy harvesters working on Ku and K band will be presented with a focus on the overall efficiency, compactness and bandwidth of these designs.




The roles of Gallium Nitride hybrids and MMICs for future satellite applications

Quay Rudiger and F. Thome; Fraunhofer Institute of Applied Solid-State Physics (IAF), Germany

This talk describes the ongoing use of GaN in satellite applications. With the increased availability of GaN hybrids and MMICs recently a larger number of space applications have been dedicated to make use of GaN in space. GaN MMICs around 20 GHz are very suitable for future active array downlink system, while especially Ka-band and E-band MMIC are becoming available for SATCOM.
The talk discusses especially new MMICs and MMIC aspects and progress on commercial space qualification.




GaN microwave and power electronic devices for space: Challenges and chances

Joachim Würfl, Oliver Hilt; Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenz-technik, Berlin, German

: This presentation first points out specific advantages and benefits of GaN based microwave and power electronic devices for space applications in comparison to other competitive semiconductor device technologies. For a successful implementation of GaN-based systems in space reliability and radiation hardness are indispensable prerequisites. Therefore an overview on the current understanding of GaN-based degradation mechanisms will be provided. In this connection drift and permanent degradation effects of microwave and power electronic GaN devices are intensively discussed and related to technological details of device epitaxy, processing and layout. These considerations will finally lead to guide lines on how to further improve GaN device reliability.



Session: WSA

RF Interference Mitigation Techniques


Ranjit Gharpurey, Univ. of Texas at Austin


Chris Rudell, Univ. of Washington


This full-day workshop will consist of speakers that address a wide range of problems related to transceiver interference management and suppression. Topics will include general techniques to improve receiver selectivity and reduce transmitter unwanted spurious spectrum. Speakers will come from a diverse set of backgrounds which include system, circuit, and technology design all with the goal of interference mitigation either through filtering or cancellation techniques. Presentations will focus on transceiver circuit design to enhance linearity, dynamic range, improve synthesizer phase noise, and cancellation methods, all for improved selectivity performance. Other topics which address emerging areas that attempt to improve overall spectral efficiency by realizing full-duplex systems capable of simultaneous transmit and receive (STARS) on the same frequency are also discussed. In addition, some speakers will focus on new MEMs technologies to improve transceiver interference mitigation. Further presentations on system/networking strategies related to integrating radios in the context of interference mitigation will be given.




Electrical-Balance Duplexing for RF Self-Interference Cancellation to Enable In-Band Full-Duplex

Barend van Liempd; IMEC

In-band full duplex is a relatively new communication paradigm where the TX and RX operate at the same time, using the same spectral resources. In this case, the local TX causes so-called self interference at exactly the same frequency as the wanted signal and with much higher magnitude than the wanted signal. To enable such wireless links, the self interference must be cancelled, suppressed or filtered at various stages throughout the RX chain.
This talk discusses electrical balance duplexers as part of the solution, providing high self interference cancellation directly at RF frequencies, thereby severely reducing receiver constraints. These duplexers mimic an antenna's impedance using an on chip tunable dummy impedance to ensure destructive cancellation of the self interference at the RX port. System-level specifications as well as design techniques are discussed, to give insight into both current state of the art and on going research on this promising technique.




Micromechanical Filters: Fundamentals and Application to Interference Mitigation

Roy H. Olsson III; DARPA

The radio frequency (RF) spectrum is becoming increasingly crowded, with more users accessing an increasing amount of bandwidth. As a result, wireless handsets are experiencing a rapid increase in the number of frequencies and standards supported on a single platform. While the other components that comprise the RF front-end such as amplifiers, mixers and switches are experiencing higher levels of co-integration, a modern cellular radio includes > 30 discrete filter dies to accommodate the growing number of RF bands. A miniature and adaptive filter technology that supports many wireless standards on a single chip is needed to continue the increase in wireless data and functionality seen over the past decade.

Piezoelectric microresonators are an enabling technology for increasing adaptability, improving performance and miniaturization of RF devices. This talk will present an overview of piezoelectric microresonator and filter research. First, the need for adaptive and reconfigurable filtering in next generation wireless devices will be described. The performance and adaptability advantages derived from micromachining of piezoelectric resonators will be presented, followed by a comparison with competing technologies. Reconfigurable filter arrays realized in thin film piezoelectric materials will be presented along with the application of these components in adaptive wireless systems. Finally, a look toward next generation piezoelectric materials and devices such as thin film lithium niobate resonators and tunable acoustic filters will be discussed.





Interference Rejection exploiting Switched-R-C Techniques Compatible with CMOS

Eric Klumperink; University of Twente

With the increasing number of wireless users, interference rejection is becoming the main design challenge in CMOS Receiver front-ends. Techniques to improve the Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) of radio receivers and cancel interference are hence important. As CMOS technology offers switches that improve with technology, while highly linear capacitors and resistors are also available, these are the components of choice to realize high SFDR. This contribution will review some recently proposed ideas to improve the SFDR of CMOS radio receivers. Examples are mixer-first receivers exploiting switched-R or switch-R-C circuits, and N-path filters that simultaneously realize spatial domain and frequency domain filtering. Also, an in-band full-duplex receiver will be discussed.




Broadband channelizer architectures with dynamic range relaxation

Ranjit Gharpurey; University of Texas at Austin

Architectures for implementation of broadband channelizers will be described. These architectures split a broad bandwidth into contiguous sub-bands with a single fixed frequency LO source. Frequency-translation based techniques for interference suppression in such broadband radios will be described. The use of channelizers for rapid interference detection will be discussed.




Self-Interference Cancellation and Filtering Techniques for Reconfigurable Frequency-Division-Duplex/Full-Duplex/Co-Existing Radios

Harish Krishnaswamy; Columbia University

Multi-band frequency-division duplex radios require numerous off-chip duplexers, which limit the form factor in mobile applications. Self-interference cancellation can relax duplexer isolation requirements, enabling compact/tunable duplexers. Full-duplex radios have recently emerged as a promising paradigm to double network capacity and spectrum utilization. Self-interference cancellation to the tune of >100dB is mandatory in such systems, and must be pursued in the antenna, RF/analog and digital domains.




Self-Interference Cancellation in the RF Domain

Sachin Katti; Stanford University

Self-interference arises when radios are tightly packed in a device, its experienced in-band, adjacent-band and out of band. These are commonly known as in-band full duplex, frequency division full duplex and radio coexistence in industry parlance. This talk reviews our recent work on self-interference cancellation, and discusses how it can be applied to handle self-interference problems in multi-band multi-protocol devices.




Interference in Near-Field Communications (NFC) circuits for mobile handsets

Magnus Wiklund; Qualcomm Corporation

Integrating multiple standards in mobile handsets presents numerous difficulties with respect to interference. Typical connectivity systems feature WLAN, BT, FM, GPS, and NFC in various combinations; in most applications connectivity must coexist with WAN. Despite challenges with co-existence of multiple radio standards a user expect their simultaneous operation to be seamless. This paper focuses on the NFC technology with special emphasis to the transmitter and fundamental characteristics of the NFC system.




Strategies for Transmitter Self-Interference Management & Mitigation

Chris Rudell; University of Washington

Management of self-interference using numerous discrete duplex filters has become a major barrier for current and future multi-band highly-programmable full duplex radios. This presentation explores some of the potential alternative integrated architectures to address self-interface without the need for costly and area consuming discrete filters. A key challenge for any self-interference cancellation systems is the potential injection of noise in the receiver front-end, the matching of phase and amplitude between the RX input and the canceller. These topics will be explored and some results from a recent integrated self-interference cancellation will be presented.




Session: WSB

Digital and Analog Techniques for Power-Efficiency Enhancement in Wireless Transmitters


 Oren Eliezer, EverSet Technologies / TallannQuest


 Ayman Fayed, Iowa State University


 Transmitter power-efficiency has always represented a significant challenge in wireless devices, whether these are for battery-operated mobile devices or infrastructure applications.
As the targeted bandwidths become wider and the spectral efficiencies higher, it is becoming even more challenging to develop power-efficient transmitters that meet all the requirements of the wireless systems they serve.
This workshop, involving experts from industry and academia, will cover various architectures and techniques for power-efficient transmitters, including both analog and digital approaches.




The Three Operating Modes of Dynamic-Power-Supply Transmitter

Earl McCune; RF Communications Consulting

Any amplifier operated with a varying power supply is actually a 3-port circuit. When an amplifier is characterized as a 3-port for dynamic power supply operation, three separate operating modes (2 nonlinear, 1 linear) appear: L-mode, C-mode, and P-mode. Each of these modes, along with their relationships and differences, are presented and discussed.




Integrated and non-integrated Envelope Tracking Solutions

Jerry Lopez; NoiseFigure Research / Texas Tech University

The recent necessity for wide bandwidth and lower power communications systems have increased the need for highly-efficient highly-linear power amplifiers (PA). Current communication protocols can reach up to 12dB peak-to-average ratio (PAR), which directly affects the linearity and efficiency of the PA. Techniques such as envelope-tracking (ET) and envelope-modulation (EM) are being utilized to increase efficiency and enhance linearity of the amplifier even when operated at compressed modes. In this tutorial, we will analyze ET and EM systems from a basic level to its recent forms including current testing techniques. An overview of envelope modulators, including integrated and non-integrated versions, will be offered. Future high-power and sub-watt ET/EM systems will also be discussed.




Design Challenges of Envelope Tracking and Polar Architectures as Supply-Modulation Based Techniques for Enhancing Transmitter Efficiency

Jennifer Kitchen and Bertan Bakkaloglu; Arizona State University

This tutorial will provide an overview of design challenges and advances in supply-modulation techniques for improving transmitter efficiency. A comparison of existing adaptive biasing architectures and their implications to the RF transmitter's electrical efficiency and linearity will be presented. Emphasis will be placed on practical limitations for implementing envelope tracking and polar transmitters; highlighting the supply modulator's design challenges. The best-in-class published performance for the most recent works in supply-modulation based architectures, including the envelope-tracking Doherty and 'digital' bias modulation, will also be discussed.




Outphasing Techniques for Achieving High-Efficiency in Transmitters

Taylor Barton; University of Texas at Dallas

Outphasing amplifiers control their output power using relative phase control of efficient branch PAs, offering the potential for linear amplification with high efficiency over a wide range of output power levels. The advantage of this approach is the high efficiency of the constituent branch PAs, which can be highly saturated or operate in switched-mode. Conventional outphasing techniques, however, have several limitations in achievable efficiency, primarily relating to the power combining network. This talk will present an overview of classic outphasing techniques, including systems based on isolating and lossless power combining. It will then focus on more recent techniques to improve efficiency under backoff, including integrated implementations.




Power Supply Noise Mitigation techniques for RF PAs

Ayman Fayed; Iowa State University

RF Power Amplifiers (PAs) are typically the most power-demanding components in wireless transmitters. Therefore, converting power from the battery to these PAs as efficiently as possible is very critical. Although switching power converters are known to be highly efficient, adopting them to power RF PAs faces many hurdles, particularly due to the switching noise associated with them, which tends to significantly degrade the system performance. This tutorial will discuss various techniques to mitigate the impact of this switching noise, including active ripple cancellation, delta-sigma control, and different spread-spectrum control techniques.




A Fully Integrated High-Efficiency Digital Transmitter Based on PWM and Class-D PA

Lei Ding and Rahmi Hezar; Texas Instruments

 This tutorial presents a fully digital transmitter architecture that can be used to replace the entire analog/RF signal chain in a traditional transmitter. The new architecture utilizes sigma-delta modulation and pulse-width modulation to convert high resolution baseband I and Q signals into 3-level switching signals, thereby allowing efficient Class-D PA stages to be used. In addition, cascaded sigma-delta stages and switched-capacitor combining are incorporated into the architecture to significantly reduce the out-of-band quantization noise while maintaining excellent efficiency. The digital transmitter architecture is demonstrated through a 45 nm CMOS test chip, which achieves excellent efficiency and linearity.



Linearizing Power Amplifiers with Class-G Analog Voltage-Supply Modulators

Jeffery Walling; University of Utah

 With increasing energy demands for wireless PAs, improvements in energy efficiency are vital. CMOS optimization for low switching resistance leads to the use of CMOS switched-mode power amplifiers. These amplifiers rely on external linearization circuits to amplify non-constant envelope modulated signals. In this talk, we will compare several techniques for linearization, with particular emphasis on analog supply modulation techniques. Practical design considerations for RF switched-mode PAs will be given, along with design considerations for analog supply modulators. Several techniques will be compared and a case-study of a class-G analog supply modulator will be examined in detail.



Digital Approaches for Power Efficiency Enhancement in Transmitters

Oren Eliezer1 and Sankalp Modi2; 1EverSet Technologies / TallannQuest, 2University of Texas at Dallas

 This tutorial proposes a unique digital approach to realizing power-efficient transmission, which is based on a lookahead window that provides a prediction of a segment of the envelope of the signal. Examples for implementations of this digitally intensive approach will be given, including several different envelope tracking systems and a Doherty based architecture for a high-power transmitter.




Session: WSC

Highly Efficient RF Frequency Generation in Nanometer CMOS Technologies


 Salvatore Levantino, Politecnico di Milano


 Stefano Pellerano, Intel Corp.


 The energy efficiency of RF frequency synthesizers is of paramount importance in high-performance mobile radios that pose stringent phase-noise requirements, as well as in emerging wireless applications that feature extremely low power budgets (sensors, wearables, internet of things). Unfortunately, improving spectral purity in conventional phase-locked loops is obtained at the price of higher power consumption. This workshop will discuss the most relevant directions that have been investigated in recent years to break this trade-off by both circuit design and architectural innovations. The workshop will begin by reviewing the fundamental limitations of the phase-noise-versus-power trade-off in oscillators and the recent advances in the design of highly efficient oscillators operating in unconventional classes. Then, it will move to discuss the main architectural innovations relaxing the noise-power trade-off in fractional-N PLLs: (i) adaptive phase-noise cancellation, (ii) nested-and-cascaded architecture, (iii) sub-sampling phase detection, (iv) injection-locked PLLs. As CMOS technologies scale down and accurate DSP is enabled at low power and small area, the traditional analog PLLs are also moving towards mostly digital designs, which are demonstrating better efficiency and scalability, and even towards fully digital designs, achieved via automatic synthesis-and-layout flow. In the second half of the workshop, the most recent realizations of analog, hybrid and digital frequency synthesizers will be critically compared from the efficiency and the scalability points of view.




Fundamental limitations in LC oscillators noise-power efficiency

Danilo Manstretta; University of Pavia, Italy

Modern communication systems need clocks with very low phase noise (or jitter). Another increasingly key requirement is low power consumption, leading to the prominence of the phase noise vs power trade-off. To minimize power dissipation for a given phase noise integrated oscillators often use as load high-Q LC-resonators. Through the years several topologies have been proposed. However, it is not always easy to ascertain whether the dominant reason of improvements comes from topology or improved resonator Q. The goal of this talk is to ascertain the ultimate performance limit for some of the most used oscillators, including most types of class-B (standard, AC-coupled and with tail filter), class-C and class-F LC oscillators as well as distributed oscillators (traveling-wave and standing-wave and hybrid). In the past, many authors have analyzed oscillators generally preferring rigor to intuitiveness. An intuitive yet sufficiently accurate formulation of phase noise is presented. To compare different topologies an excess noise factor that represents the difference between the maximum achievable Figure of Merit and the actual one is also introduced. In addition, the theory is experimentally verified in a rigorous and objective way comparing different topologies in the exact same operating conditions, i.e. technology, Q of the tank, dividers, etc. Measurements on several chip prototypes allow to verify, in an unbiased way a very good agreement between the model and both simulations and measurements.




Fully Integrated Phase Noise Extraction and Cancellation Techniques for Ring Oscillator Based Fractional-N PLLs

Bertan Bakkaloglu; Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

Ring-oscillators (ROs) provide a low-cost digital VCO solution in fully integrated PLLs. However due to their supply noise sensitivity and high noise floor, their applications have been limited to low performance applications. The proposed architecture introduces an analog feed-forward adaptive phase noise cancellation architecture that extracts and suppresses phase noise of ring-oscillators outside the PLL bandwidth. The proposed technique can improve the phase noise at an arbitrary offset frequency and bandwidth, and after initial calibration for gain it is insensitive to process, voltage and temperature variations. An experimental fractional PLL, with a loop bandwidth of 200 kHz is utilized to demonstrate the active phase noise cancellation approach. The cancellation loop is designed to suppress the phase noise at 1 MHz offset by 12.5 dB and reference spur by 13 dB with less than 17% increase in the overall power consumption at 5.1 GHz frequency. The measured phase noise at 1 MHz offset after cancellation is -105 dBc/Hz. The proposed RO-PLL is fabricated in 90nm CMOS process. With noise cancellation loop enabled, the PLL consumes 24.7 mA at 1.2V supply.




Low-noise high-OSR sigma-delta fractional-N frequency synthesizer

SeongHwan Cho; Korean Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, KAIST, Daejon, Korea

In this talk, reference multiplication techniques to achieve low-noise low-power fractional-N frequency synthesizer is presented by means of nested and cascaded PLL architecture. In the nested-PLL, intermediate output of the feedback divider is used as the delta-sigma modulator (DSM) clock so that the DSM achieves high oversampling ratio (OSR) and thus low quantization noise. Noise aliasing due to the divider is suppressed by having an anti-alias filter implemented using a PLL. In the cascaded-PLL, reference multiplied fractional-N synthesis is achieved by employing two PLLs in cascade: an integer-N PLL followed by a fractional-N PLL. In order to reduce the spur and phase noise of the integer-N PLL, reference injection scheme with dual-pulse ring oscillator is used, which eliminates the need for injection timing adjustment. Prototype results of these PLLs in 130nm CMOS demonstrate state-of-the-art noise and power consumption without requiring any complex calibration




High-performance fractional-N frequency synthesizers with large divided ratios

Tai-Cheng Lee; National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

For conventional charge-pump-based PLLs, charge pump circuits and phase detectors are the dominant sources of in-band noise, especially for the one with a large divided ratio. Furthermore, Σ-Δ modulators in fractional-N PLLs induce significant quantization noise to deteriorate the phase noise of the output clocks. Sampling-based PLLs are proposed to achieve better performance. In this talk, prior arts on fractional-N PLL design are reviewed first. Then, the detail design and an analysis of a sub- sampling PLL are introduced to achieve a low in-band phase noise of -112 dBc/Hz at a 2.3-GHz output frequency.


Synthesizable Digital PLL Using Injection-Lock Architecture

Kenichi Okada; Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan

In this presentation, a synthesizable PLL using the injection-lock technique is introduced. Synthesizable PLLs using common digital synthesis tools can be portable and scalable for process technology, which is advantageous in nanometer-scale CMOS technology. An injection-lock PLL is one of the good candidates of synthesizable PLL because the feed-forward phase-lock mechanism can relax the fine timing design of TDC/DTC-based PLL.




Ring-Based RF Digital Frequency Synthesizers

Amr Elshazly; Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR, USA

Ring-based digital frequency synthesizers have recently become popular as they offer certain advantages over their analog and LC-based counterparts. Ring-based DPLLs offer great area savings, immunity to PVT variations, simplify several aspects of the design, and easier portability to newer processes. This presentation describes DPLL implementations identifying the design bottlenecks, and discusses recent design techniques proposed to achieve high performance with low power for both integer-N and Fractional-N ring-oscillator based RF digital frequency synthesizers.




Area efficient analog PLLs

Jing-Hong Conan Zhan; Mediatek, Hsinchu, Taiwan

It is generally believed that ADPLL will benefit directly from process scaling in terms of power and area. In this workshop, what limits conventional analog PLL from scaling will be revisited. Recent techniques and design examples toward an area-efficient analog PLL will be reviewed. Analog PLL area shrink with respect to process scaling will be discussed.




The best of both worlds: combining digital and analog techniques in high performance PLLs

Mark Ferriss; IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY, USA

The recent interest in digital PLLs is primarily motivated by a search for circuits which are architecturally better aligned with modern digital-oriented CMOS manufacturing processes. However, some of the best features of analog PLLs, for example, highly linear phase detection, are difficult to replicate in fully digital PLLs. In this work, we demonstrate how digital and analog PLLs can be combined in a hybrid PLL such that the best features of both architectures can by utilized, while avoiding the worst features of both. In addition, we will demonstrate how advanced ΔΣ noise cancellation can be implemented in the context of a hybrid PLL. This will be demonstrated in the context of a 13 to 26GHz highly flexible hybrid PLL with an embedded ΔΣ noise cancellation scheme.




Ultra-High Speed Direct Digital Frequency Synthesis

Fa Foster Dai; Auburn University, Alabama, USA

The recent success of ultra-high-speed direct digital synthesizer (DDS) provides an excellent solution to wideband complex waveform generation and digital modulation for applications such as digital radar, telemetry, RF sensor, instrument and wireless communication. This talk presents advanced high-speed DDS designs, focusing on techniques that can achieve high clock frequency, low power, high dynamic range and improved spectral performance. Techniques such as spur cancellation, pre-distortion, ΣΔ modulation, digital calibration and time-interleaving are addressed. A number of design examples are presented to illustrate the state-of-the-art developments in this field. A SiGe DDS MMIC with 11-bit phase and 10-bit amplitude resolutions achieves clock frequency of 8.6 GHz and spurious-free-dynamic-range (SFDR) of 45 dBc at 4.3 GHz Nyquist output.




Session: WSD

Mulit-Gbps Wireline Transceivers: Inching Closer to RF/MM-wave IC Domain


Hiva Hedaytai, Xilinx


Mona Hella, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute


Burak Catli, Broadcom


High Performance Computing (HPC) installations and exaFLOP supercomputing require high bandwidth chip-to-chip and system-to-system communication links. One critical block in such systems is the Serializer/Deserializer (SerDes) which formats and transfers data over either electrical or optical links. Moving data transfer rates beyond 32Gb/s and 64Gb/s clearly places some of the SerDes design challenges into the RF/Microwave domain. The high data rate coupled to the limits on the transfer medium, require relatively complex modulation techniques. The cost and power consumption have also become more pronounceable, particularly with super data centers employing several thousand of such transceivers. This workshop presents an overview of recent advances and ongoing research in Multi-Gbp/s serial links as it relates to the world of RF/Microwaves. The workshop will cover wideband microwave clock generation schemes, clock and data recovery circuits along with various equalization techniques. In addition 30+GS/s ADC architectures for 60+Gb/s wireline receiver applications will be discussed. We will also explore low-power circuit implementations for 25G+ I/Os, where we discuss both analog and digital implementations.




Design Techniques for Scalable, Sub-pJ/b Serial I/O Transceivers

Prof. Samuel Palermo; Texas A&M University

In order to meet the inter-chip bandwidth demands of future systems and comply with limited IC power budgets, both chip-to-chip data rates and I/O energy efficiency must improve. This is a significant challenge for electrical interconnect architectures, which currently offer the lowest-cost solutions, as the frequency-dependent loss of conventional electrical channels prohibit significant data rate scaling without efficient equalizer circuits. This tutorial will discuss key design techniques that enable scalable, sub-pJ/b serial I/O transceivers. The first part of the tutorial will discuss low power transmitter and receiver designs capable of low-voltage operation and fast power-state transitioning. Next, low-complexity clocking architectures are details. The tutorial concludes with a discussion on low-power equalizer circuits that enable the support of higher data rates over lossy channels.




Design techniques for 25G+ analog & digital I/O implementations

Dr. Thomas Toifl; IBM, Zurich, Switzerland

In this talk we will explore low-power circuit implementations for 25G+ I/Os, where we discuss both analog and digital implementations. We start by giving a short introduction to important wireline I/O standards, and describe the associated equalization requirements. We then turn to the equalization options in the data path using a feed forward equalizer (FFE) and a continuous-time linear equalizer (CTLE), followed by a discussion of design options for decision feedback equalizers (DFE). In the second part of the talk we will turn to digital I/O implementations: Here, we will first discuss the design and recent results of high-speed low-power SAR ADCs. We then describe methods to reduce the latency in the CDR logic, which is required to compensate the latency of the ADC without penalizing jitter tolerance. We will then discuss low-power solutions for digital equalizer implementations.




Review of ADC-Based CDRs and the Challenges for Higher Data Rates

Prof. Ali Sheikholeslami; University of Toronto

ADC-Based Clock and Data Recovery circuits are one of primary candidates for the 60+Gb/s wireline receivers, as they can provide significant channel equalization in digital domain. This is especially important at higher data rates as the channel attenuation become more significant at the Nyquist rate and as the attenuation profile shows a higher complexity that cannot be easily compensated for by analog equalization. The main challenge in designing ADC-based CDRs is their high power consumption, especially the power consumed by the ADC's at the front end. This talk will review the ADC-based CDRs and the techniques proposed to address their challenges.




Transceivers for 40Gbps and 100Gbps Wireline Connections

Dr. Jun Cao; Broadcom

The demand for wireline transceivers running at rates 25Gbps and higher has been fueled by the exponential growth in 40Gb and 100Gb Ethernet in recent years. This talk will first present the design of a transmitter/receiver chipset running at 44Gb/s in 40nm CMOS with state-of-art jitter and power performance. Various techniques are employed to overcome the speed limitation of the technology, including bridged-shunt and T-coil shunt-series peaking and a new pipelined CDR/DMX structure. The design of a low power 4x28Gb/s transceiver for 100GbE is then discussed, particularly the reconfigurable, distributed and tuned clock structure, which saves 70% of power compared to conventional designs. At present, 100G coherent systems are being deployed rapidly but they also pose special challenges in the circuit design. The talk will conclude with the discussion on a quad-channel 128Gb/s coherent DP-QPSK transmitter which achieves an RJ of 103fsrms and I-Q data skew much less than 1ps across the variation in temperature and supplies.




A 40nm High Performance Analog Multi-Tone Transceiver for Multidrop Processor-Memory Interfaces

Prof. Yusuf Leblebici; École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland

A 7.5 Gb/s mixed NRZ/multi-tone transceiver for multi-drop bus (MDB) memory interfaces is designed and fabricated in 40nm CMOS technology. Reducing the complexity of the equalization circuitry on the RX side, the proposed architecture achieves 1 pJ/bit link efficiency for a MDB channel with 45 dB loss at 2.5 GHz. The transmitted spectrum composed of BB and I/Q sub-bands with the capability to match the modulation frequency of the entire TRX with respect to the channel response over +/-25% range. A switch-cap mixer/filter is developed to down convert and equalize the I/Q sub-bands in RX very efficiently.




Session: WSE

Mixed-Signal Power Amplifiers and RF-DACs


Hua Wang; Georgia Institute of Technology


Robert Staszewski; University College Dublin


Renaldi Winoto; Marvell


The growing demand for a higher data-rate and longer battery life poses stringent requirements on the power amplifiers (PAs) in mobile handset transceivers. Silicon-based PAs, e.g., in CMOS or SiGe HBT processes, have recently emerged as competitive solutions for many applications. Besides low-cost and high integration, silicon-platforms offer unparalleled signal processing/computation capabilities, which can be exploited for PA performance enhancement with low overhead. RF-DAC is one perfect example of this new PA paradigm-shift. It merges digital operation/processing and analog/mixed-signal techniques with PA architectures to achieve efficiency/linearity enhancement, performance self-healing, and antenna load compensation, etc. As a result, advanced silicon PA has expanded from a standalone RF building block to a complex mixed-signal/mixed-mode system with orchestrated collaboration among analog, digital, and large-signal RF operations. This workshop is to review this recent wave of innovations on "Mixed-Signal PAs and RF-DACs" and bring the state-of-the-art technologies to the attendees.




Switched-Mode PA for Broadband and RF-DACs

Prof. Robert Staszewski, University College Dublin

This talk will provide an overview of switched-mode power amplifiers and RF DACs in CMOS wireless transmitters. At the core of this trend is CMOS technology scaling. As the switching speed of CMOS transistors has been increasing, advantages of switched-mode class-E, class-D and class-F operations have been more obvious not only from the power efficiency standpoint, but also from performance and transfer function repeatability. Furthermore, technology scaling has allowed full integration of matching networks between the last stage of PA and an antenna feed, which further allowed to reduce the total solution cost. The final benefit of the technology scaling is the partition of the PA “switch” into a large number of controllable switches for the purpose of amplitude modulation.




Leveraging RF-DACs to Enhance the Doherty PA Architecture

Prof. Hua Wang, Georgia Insititue of Technology

The ever-increasing demand of a high data rate has led to a wide use of spectrum-efficient modulations in modern wireless systems. These schemes often present high peak-to-average power ratios (PAPR), which require the power amplifier (PA) to work at the power back-off (PBO) mode. Moreover, sophisticated constellations are often employed, posing additional linearity requirements on the PA for high fidelity signal transmission. Both aspects may lead to substantially degraded PA efficiency in practice.
We present a CMOS compatible digital Doherty polar power amplifier architecture to address the PA trade-off challenges among power back-off, linearity, and efficiency. Leveraging the digital-intensive architecture, the gain relationship of the Doherty main/auxiliary amplifier paths can be precisely controlled, which achieves optimized Doherty "active load-pulling" operation for enhanced PA back-off efficiency. Moreover, the architecture provides the Doherty power amplifier with highly reconfigurability, linearity improvement, and robust Doherty performance against antenna load mismatch. In addition, we will explore the feasibility of combining this digital Doherty PA scheme with other PA techniques to achieve new RF PA architectures with hybrid-mode efficiency/linearity enhancement.




Switched-Capacitor and Class-G PA

Prof. Jell Walling, University of Utah

With increasing energy demands for wireless PAs, improvements in energy efficiency are vital. Leveraging CMOS prowess as a switch is critical and leads to the development of mixed-signal RF PAs. A switched mode PA modulated by an analog class-G supply modulator will be introduced. Following this, the switched capacitor PA concept will be introduced along with a class-G digitally supply modulated PA. Design considerations for both of these mixed-signal PAs will be discussed in detail, and comparisons and contrasts for the designs will be offered. Specifically tradeoffs in linearity, efficiency and noise will be analyzed and discussed. Detailed design examples will be offered for all of the presented mixed-signal PAs.




Polar Antenna Impedance Detection in a CMOS Power Amplifier and Impedance Tuning with An SOI Switch based Impedance Tuner

Dr. Shouhei Koussai, Tobisha Corporation

The recent demand for wideband and small-sized antenna unfortunately leads to potentially larger antenna load mismatches in practice. However, this is a critical issue for achieving a highly efficient power amplifier in real use. In this talk, an antenna impedance detection and tuning scheme, which takes advantage of the unparalleled CMOS signal processing capability, is presented as a promising solution that could be directly embedded with CMOS power amplifier (PA) designs. Unlike many other reported antenna tuning techniques, we propose a polar impedance scheme, which can detect and correct both real and imaginary antenna impedance mismatches. Our detection circuit is integrated on a CMOS PA chip, and the antenna impedance can be tuned to accurately track non-50Ohm optimum load impedance for the PA with wide frequency range and back-off output power. In addition, the tuning system can handle modulated signals and can track the time-varying antenna load due to the proximity effect.




Self-Healing for Mm-Wave Power Amplifiers

Prof. Steven Bowers, University of Virgina

Advances in CMOS technology create opportunities and challenges for power amplifiers (PAs) at mm-wave frequencies. Process variation, modeling inaccuracies, load impedance mismatch as well as partial and total transistor failure can significantly degrade the performance of the PA at these frequencies, especially early in a process node¹s life-cycle. These uncertainties and variation can require either a less aggressive mm-wave design, multiple design spins, a reduction in yield or some combination of all three. Self-healing uses the vast digital computational power of CMOS through an integrated mixed signal feedback loop to sense performance degradation of the mm-wave circuit, and correct for it by actuating the circuit. This presentation will explore various techniques and costs associated with producing a robust and effective self-healing mm-wave PA and will go through an example of such a system.



Holistic Design Approach for Mm-Wave Digitally-Assisted Power Amplifiers (DAPA) on CMOS and GaN

 Dr. Tim LaRocca, Northrop Grumman

 A top-down design review of the system, circuit and measurements of digitally-assisted power amplifiers (DAPA) on both CMOS and GaN will be provided. This is based on three published designs including a 45GHz and 94GHz 4b DAPA on IBM 10LPe (65nm bulk) and 12SOI (45nm SOI), and 6-18GHz GaN DAPA for 64QAM modulation. This presentation will start with a review of high-level modeling and simulation of the DAPA using VerliogA and CMOS device models to predict efficiency improvements and define system requirements. This will be followed by a brief review of the digital algorithm and implementation including tradeoffs between ASIC and FPGA solutions. Finally, a practical review of the design of the DAPA with explanation of measurements and future work will conclude the talk.



Next Generation Base station Transmitters / RF-DACS

Prof. Leo de Vreede, Delft University of Technology

Next generation base station transmitters need to be efficient and wideband in nature in order to support multiple communication standards / bands in an energy and cost effective manner. The trend to smaller cell sizes, lower transmit powers and increased bandwidths puts new constrains on the TX-system concept, system-integration and the power consumption of the total TX line-up. With this trend in mind, new PA techniques and RF-DAC approaches will be considered that can provide higher system integration, bandwidth and overall line up-efficiency.



Digital Transmitters and RF-DACs for CMOS Transceiver SoCs with Self-Compensation/Predistortion

Dr. Oren Eliezer, EverSet Technologies/TallannQuest

This tutorial will present several extensively-digital topologies for wideband transmitters/RF-DACs, some of which were implemented at Texas Instruments in nanometer CMOS transceiver SoCs.  Productization aspects, such as built-in testing and “self-healing” (built-in calibration and predistortion), will be highlighted.




Session: WSF

Next Generation 77-81 GHz Automotive Radars


Gabriel M. Rebeiz, UCSD


Juergen Hasch, Robert Bosch GmbH


Automotive radars at 77 GHz are being shipped at more than 1 million units per year for long-range radars (LRR) and medium range radars (MRR) with applications in automatic cruise control (ACC), collision avoidance, and in imaging/tracking radars for autonomous driving. Radar topologies include lens-based systems, digital beamforming and RF-beamforming systems. Millimeter-wave radars are essential for autonomous driving, and new systems with wider bandwidths, better tracking and imaging software, and better scanning techniques are being developed to meet this need. This workshop assembles a mix of industry and universities to present the latest techniques in automotive radars, both from the systems/application perspective and from the mm-wave electronics and hardware perspective (antennas, packaging, etc.). The workshop will have a mix of users (Daimler Benz, Toyota), chip/electronic developers (Freescale, Infineon), and Universities, and promises to be comprehensive with a wide but in-depth view of this area.




Trends in Roadway Domain Active Sensing 

Stephen H. Bayless; ITS America

The talk analyzes the merits and limits of active sensing technologies (Radar, LIDAR and Ultrasonic detectors) and how the demands for such technologies is evolving. Of all the roadway domain active sensing technologies, vehicular radar is the best at detecting typical driving conflicts representing the most common crash risks and thus likely will serve as a key component of collision avoidance systems in many next generation smart vehicles. The report examines how future Vehicle-to-Vehicle communications and Active Traffic Management techniques will improve and complement active sensing in vehicle crash avoidance and driving automation.



Present Research Activities and Future Requirements on Radar from a car manufacturer's point of view

Juergen Dickmann; Daimler Benz, Ulm, Germany

AUTOMOTIVE RADARS have been the backbone for active safety and advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) for decades. With the introduction of the collision prevention assist, Radar sensors have become standard equipment in Mercedes-Benz passenger cars. The range of applications they enable covers detection tasks like blind spot assist up to automated braking systems like the Pre-Safe Brake assist available in the S-Class. For heavy trucks and vans they enable cruise control and braking support. In recent years, radar has more and more also considered as enabler for agency driven safety applications like the EURO-NCAP, which grant star ratings. In former days, single sensor concepts have been applied to realize ADAS, nowadays multi-sensor networks with short-,mid-, and far range radars are being applied. Today, in state of the art cars four to six radars are being used. In 2013, the first stride ahead towards higher automated systems in real serial cars has been made with the Bertha drive with the Mercedes-Benz S-Class Intelligent drive. The higher degree in automation of ADAS, where the driver is going to be exculpated increasingly from the pure driving task, imposes much higher performance to the environmental perception task and hence to the automotive radar. The paper will provide an overview on present automotive radars at Daimler AG, will give an outline on future requirements for highly automated driving and will present some related research examples on radar based environmental perception.




High-Resolution Phased-Array Automotive Radars

Dr. Jae S. Lee; Paul Schamlenburg; Kyosuke Miyagi; Toyota Technical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Automotive radar is a critical sensing unit for vehicle safety, automated driving assistance etc. along with lidar and camera. This talk will introduce superior properties of phased array beam scanning method, prototype system development with SiGe RFIC and its performance verification.




Automotive Radar Technology Trends

Juergen Hasch; Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart, Germany

In the last few years automotive radar has been transformed from being a niche sensor to becoming standard even in middle-class cars. With Euro-NCAP ratings now requiring automated braking and pedestrian safety functionality, radar is often identified as the best suited sensor for this purpose.
Additionally, future automated driving will require detailed and highly reliable information on the environment and surrounding street traffic. This requires radar sensors to provide more detailed information about the environment, foremost in the spatial domain. Automotive radar has always benefited significantly from technological advances, especially in semiconductor technology.
and packaging, allowing a better performance and much more functionality in the radar frontend. A second key area is the antenna system, where new concepts to acquire more information about signals reflected from the environment can significantly improve resolution and detection performance.




Digitally Centric Modulation Schemes on a Software Defined Radar (SDR) Platform

Andreas Stelzer; Johannes Kepler University, Linz

Highly integrated radar sensors are a trade-off of available semiconductor technology, analog bandwidth used, as well as baseband functionality and signal processing capabilities. Based on a software defined radar demonstrator digitally enhanced FMCW systems in combination with various modulation schemes for TDMA-, CDMA-, FDMA-MIMO applications and multi-beam TX phased arrays, are discussed. Alternatives, e.g. OFDM modulation or PRN-based radar sensors with different coding schemes are shown, and a novel PRN-MIMO radar sensor is introduced.
With CMOS technology nodes on one hand reaching the high radar frequencies, on the other hand fully digital-only modulation schemes and signal processing approaches are feasible. In the workshop some approaches towards digital centric approaches in terms of RF-hardware, modulation schemes, and evaluation procedures are tackled, which means a paradigm shift in the RF design flow from the analog towards the digital domain.



Packaging Technology and Production Testing: Key Differentiators for Automotive Radar Front-End Products

Dr. Sergio Palma Pacheco; Freescale Semiconductor, Tempe, AZ

Ever since the advent of the seat belt, safety has become a key differentiator in the automotive industry.  This trend continued with airbags, anti-lock braking systems, and now with stability control.  Although these systems have been pervasive for the past 20 years, the number of accidents and fatalities in the US has remained steady.  The next step on the road towards greater safety is the use of active sensing for collision avoidance.  This talk will cover the development of mm-wave packaging technology and automated production testing capability as key differentiators in the industry.  The main key features, challenges, and future trends for each will be presented; and how these enablers impact automotive radar applications from an overall system and business perspective.




How Can Semiconductor Technology and MMIC Packaging Contribute to Future Success of Automotive Radar?

Dr. Rudolph Lachner; Infineon AG

Today’s market success of automotive radar systems is to a great extend driven by technology. The development is characterized by the transition from old school GaAs based, more or less on discrete millimeter wave design approaches and semi-automated assembly to highly integrated Si-based SoC solutions and automated PCB assembly with standard SMD components. The SoC solutions have significant cost-down potential and offer high levels of manufacturing maturity, yield, automotive quality over the full temperature range and high-volume production capabilities, enabling broad market penetration of radar even in the low priced car segments.  In this talk, I will present state of SiGe radar technology and its related packaging. Examples of products will be given and directions and challenges of future process developments will be outlined.




Antennas Concepts for Automotive Radar Sensors

Prof. Wolfgang Menzel; University of Ulm, Germany

The choice automotive radar antennas is determined by the requirement for high gain and low loss combined with small size and depth, the challenges by the millimeter-wave frequency range, and great cost pressures. Consequently, planar antennas are dominating in the lower frequency range, while lens and reflector antennas had been the original choice at 76.5 GHz, partly in folded configurations, but today planar antennas are being introduced for the mm-wave range as well. With increasing requirements towards a much more detailed observation of the scenery in front or around the vehicle, multi-beam antennas or scanning antennas have been designed, and solutions based on (digital) beamforming with a number of integrated antennas are in use or under development. This contribution will give a general introduction into antenna solutions forn automotive radar and present a number of realized solutions.




Millimeter-wave beamforming chips with built-in-self-test for low-cost radars

Gabriel M. Rebeiz; University of California, San Diego

Phased-array chips with 8 to 16 channels and with transmit and receive capabilities have been developed for low-cost mm-wave automotive radars. One of the cost drivers in these chips is the S-parameter testing at W-band frequencies, and therefore, a new built-in-self-test solution has been implemented which can accurately measure the amplitude and phase of each channel, and measure an entire-chip phased-array pattern. The design and packaging of these chips will be presented together with measured patterns with +/-50o scan angle and actual radar examples.




Session: WSG

Performance Metrics for mm-Wave Devices and Circuits from the Perspective of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS)


Dr. Herbert S. Bennett, NIST


Dr. Pete Zampardim RFMD


This workshop will focus on de-mystifying the ITRS RF and Analog/Mixed-Signal Technologies Working Group's mm-wave device technology and circuit roadmapping activities. Device, circuit, and technology performance simulation, scaling, and experimental characterization metrics and techniques will be addressed in detail for the most advanced CMOS, SiGe BiCMOS, III-V HBT and III-V HEMT technologies. Intrinsic device structure as well as layout parasitics will be addressed as potential show stoppers to future scaling. The ever-increasing gap between the intrinsic high frequency performance metrics of CMOS transistors and that of fully wired MOSFETs, not seen in other device types, will be explained.
The workshop will end with an open discussion among the presenters and audience on how different technologies compare to each other. What applications will drive the mm-wave section of the ITRS in the next 15 years? Will the Internet of Things pose new technology performance requirements or is existing technology more than adequate? Are FinFETs faster than Ultra-thin Body and BOX SOI MOSFETs at the same gate length and technology node? What is the real gate length of 22nm and 14nm CMOS technology and why gate length matters? Are the ITRS metric tables accurately reflecting how the technology is going to perform in mm-wave circuits?
Will all existing transistor technologies live and die together in the next ten years? Is there transistor life beyond 2-3nm physical dimensions? Which device type will scale to the highest fT and fMAX? Will mm-wave and THz SoCs be desirable and, if yes, feasible at all or will these corresponding




Roadmaps and Standards for RF and Analog/Mixed-Signal
Technologies: International Roadmap for Semiconductors Perspectives

Herbert S. Bennett; NIST, Gaithersburg, MD, USA

Roadmaps and standards with their associated measurements are key to successful innovation and commercialization and job creation. Mobile devices such as today's smart phones and tablets are rapidly growing segments of the electronics industry and are creating more opportunities for increased growth. As a response to earlier market demands for RF dependent mobile devices the ITRS established in 2001 its Working Group on RF and Analog/Mixed-Signal (RF and AMS) Technologies. This presentation includes: 1) a brief discussion on the history of technology roadmaps and a discussion on the roles that international technology roadmaps and standards play in accelerating the rates of innovation and commercialization of selected technologies, 2) the ITRS process for establishing an industrial consensus on priorities, technical requirements, and difficult challenges, and 3) Why you should be interested in RF technology roadmaps and standards. The latter are invisible catalysts for efficient economies. Essential ingredients for quality technology roadmaps and standards include sound science and engineering principles, reproducible measurements, manageable number of key processing characteristics and performance metrics, and agreement among all stakeholders. Grand challenges are sustaining effective communications, cooperation, and collaboration among stakeholders and understanding interfaces well enough to control and reproduce performance figures of merit in high volume manufacturing.




Scaling, modelling, and exploration of physical limitations of SiGe HBTs

Prof. Michael Schroter; Technical University Dresgen, Germany and UCSD, La Jolla, Ca, USA

The latest ITRS predictions for SiGe HBT technology have been based on combining the results of various one-, two- and three-dimensional TCAD simulation tools with geometry scalable compact modeling. This enables an accurate and consistent determination of all figures of merit for both devices and (benchmark) circuits. This presentation will discuss the overall procedure and the assumptions made for generating the transistor performance results found in the present ITRS tables. An extensive and consistent set of technology and electrical parameters is provided along with the obtained scaling rules. Finally, the expected fabrication related challenges and possible solutions for achieving the predicted performance data will be discussed.




III-V HBT and (MOS) HEMT scaling

Prof. Mark Rodwell, University of California, CA, USA

InP HBTs and HEMTs are today the widest-bandwidth transistors. InP HEMTs provide the lowest noise and the highest (~1.4THz) cutoff frequencies; InP HBTs have ~1.1THz cutoff frequencies, support moderate (~1000 HBT) integration scales, and offer superior RF output power densities (~0.4W/mm at 220GHz, 2.1W/mm at 86GHz). III-V LNAs and PAs are ubiquitous in today's cellular telephones and Wi-Fi transceivers; similarly InP HEMT LNAs and HBT PAs will provide the needed noise figure, output power, and PAE in emerging ~50-500 GHz wireless communications systems. We will present scaling laws and roadmaps of these devices, and examine their scaling potential to ~2-3 THz cutoff frequencies.




Nanoscale CMOS – an RF/mm-wave Perspective

Dr. Kenneth Yau; Broadcom, Irvine, CA, USA

Moore's law has been dictating the scaling of the MOS transistor for several decades. State-of-the-art CMOS technologies currently in production feature minimum gate lengths in tens of nanometers and integration scales that can only be dreamt of not too long ago. With this aggressive scaling, the CMOS transistor has attained current and power gain cut-off frequencies in excess of 300 GHz. RF and millimeter-wave LNA's, PA's and even entire transceivers, which were traditionally the domain of III-V technologies, have been successfully implemented in CMOS. This presentation will focus on the performance metrics of the nano-scale MOS transistor for RF and millimeter-wave applications. Extensive RF figures-of-merit such as Ft and Fmax and their scaling from one technology node to another will be presented. Finally, technology related challenges will be surveyed and possible solutions will be discussed.




State-of-the-art Millimeter-Wave III-V HEMT Technologies

Dr. Keisuke Shinohara; HRL Laboratories, Malibu, CA, USA

Millimeter-wave InP and GaN-based HEMT device and MMIC technologies will be reviewed. InP-HEMTs offer the lowest noise figure and the highest maximum oscillation frequency exceeding 1THz, demonstrating sub-millimeter-wave amplifier MMICs and low-noise amplifiers with a low DC power consumption. Recent progress of GaN-HEMT scaling technologies boosted its cutoff frequencies up to 500 GHz range while maintaining Johnson's figure-of-merit high breakdown performance. The emerging GaN technology enables high-efficiency millimeter-wave power amplifiers, robust low-noise amplifiers with high input power survivability, and low-loss RF switches with high power handling capability.




55nm SiGe BiCMOS technology and beyond. How aggressively can the CMOS be scaled?

Dr. Pascal Chevalier; STMicroelectronics, Crolles, France

55nm SiGe BiCMOS technology developed in STMicroelectronics 300 mm wafer line will be presented. The technology features Low Power and General Purpose CMOS devices (triple gate oxide) and 0.45 µm² 6T-SRAM bit cell. 3 flavors of SiGe HBT with fT ranging from 65 GHz to 320 GHz and fMAX from 270 GHz to 380 GHz associated to BVCEO values between 1.5 V and 3.2 V are offered. A 9 metal layers back-end of line combining the advantages of being fully compatible with the existing 55 nm CMOS libraries and to provide enhanced performance for millimeter-wave passives (inductors, capacitors and transmission lines) is available. Specific varactors dedicated to millimeter-wave applications are also proposed. Perspectives to use more advanced CMOS nodes (40nm and beyond) for next BiCMOS nodes will also be discussed.




mm-Wave RFCMOS Technology

Dr. David Harame; Global Foundries, USA

Advanced node RFCMOS is well suited for mmWave applications because of the high fT of the transistors and the features in the technology. An RFCMOS technology is typically compatible with the base CMOS process so that libraries and IP may be leveraged in designs. Added features include passives such as varactors, capacitors including metal-oxide-metal fringe capacitors, inductors, and transmission lines using layers and processes found in the base CMOS technology.

Performance scaling of advanced node CMOS now requires the incorporation of local strain layers (usually nitride) and High K Metal Gate stack.
The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors predicts the trends in CMOS and other technologies. There is an RF subcommittee which has made predictions about the RF characteristics. This report summarizes some of those projections. The methodology is to develop analytical expressions for RF figures of merit and predict RF performance trends based on the base process characteristics. Comparing the ITRS and the foundry data there are discrepancies. This is not surprising given the introduction of disruptive process innovations such as strain, layout variation, and computational lithographic design rules. This workshop talks about the trends and why there differences between extending analytical expressions and actual foundry data. The workshop concludes with a brief section on passives.




Beyond the Transistor. FET, HBT and FET-HBT mm-Wave Circuit Benchmarking and Scaling

Prof. Sorin P. Voinigescu; University of Toronto, Canada

The presentation will first discuss the measurement, de-embedding and extrapolation techniques used to generate the HF figures of merit in the ITRS tables. Exampels of nanoscale CMOS, FDSOI and SiGe HBT transistors and cascode stages measured up to 325 GHz will be provided. Next, the choice of mm-wave and high-speed benchmark circuits will be addressed along with their predicted performance scaling based on large signal compact models.




Session: WSH

Nanopackaging: Multifunctional nanomaterials and devices towards 3D system miniaturization


Dominique Baillargeat, XLIM UMR 7252 CNRS/Université de Limoges


Fabio Coccetti, CNRS-LAAS


Future nanoelectronics technology will face many challenges to match Moore and more than Moore Predictions. Going to nanometric dimensions needs to overcome limits due to physical phenomena, technological capabilities, packaging and assembly of circuits and system. (Nano)packaging is becoming a major bottleneck and it will play a crucial role for enabling future nanoelectronics to be consistent with future components, system and circuit board (or global level) requirements. In this context, many challenges have to be considered: development of state-of-the-art thermal and interconnect interfaces. development of new thermal and electrical nano-characterization techniques. development of predictive modeling tools based on multi-disciplinary and advanced multi-scales approaches, fabricating and testing of representative demonstrators with significant impact
This WS will considered all this aspects. It is inherently interdisciplinary, and contributors are comprised of experts in complementary research fields and will present intensive research investigations focused on carbon nano-tubes, graphen, 2D materials, nanowires, etc. dedicated to 3D system integration and miniaturization.




Carbon based 3D interconnect technology

Johan Liu1,2; Yifeng Fu3; Di Jiang1; Shuangxi Sun1; Jie Bao2 and Ning Wang21Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, 2SMIT Center, School of Automation and Mechacnical Engineering and Key Laboratory of New Displays and System Integration, Shanghai University, 3SHT Smart High Tech AB, Gothenburg, Sweden

Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) have excellent electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. They are mechanically strong at nanoscale yet also flexible if made micro- or milli-meter long. They are synthesized from nano-sized catalyst particles and can be made up to millimeters. A lot of research studies have been spent on various properties of the CNTs. They are regarded as an alternative material in a lot of applications such as ICs, MEMS, sensors, biomedical and other composite materials, etc. Among them, the thermally grown CNTs using chemical vapor deposition method is of particular interested in electronics applications as a 3D interconnect material. Within this talk, growth and post-growth processing of CNTs are covered and tailoring of CNTs properties, i.e. electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity and strength, etc., is discussed. To make the electronics systems smaller, faster and more power efficient, CNTs as a potential new material are likely to provide the solution for these future challenges.




Micro-Nano interposer for Molecular electronics and 3D integrated circuits

P. Reynaud; A. Thuaire; X. Baillin; S. Cheramy; G. Poupon; CEA Léti, Grenoble – France

As molecular electronics is getting more and more explored, it becomes necessary to find appropriate nanopackaging solutions. A micro-nano interposer based on silicon nanotechnology is thus developed to allow connection between a molecular circuit and mesoscopic electrodes. This interposer includes nano-to-micro scale interconnections and high density "trough silicon via" (TSV) for 3D integrated circuits.




High Frequency Models for Multilayer Graphene Interconnects

V. Kumar1; Shaloo Rakheja2; and Azad Naeemi1; 1Georgia Institute of Technology, 2MIT

In this talk, a unified approach in capturing quantum mechanical and electromagnetic phenomena will be used to model signal transport in multilayer graphene interconnects. The models will be used to quantify the potential performance of graphene interconnects as possible replacements for copper interconnects in digital and RF applications.




RF Nano Electromechanical Systems (RF NEMS) Based on Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes

A.Ziaei, S. Xavier; Thales R&T, France

We demonstrate a reproducible carbon nanotubes based technology for switching applications (RF NEMS). The final objective is to demonstrate a CNT based switching device working in the range 1-80GHz and fulfilling very demanding requirements: low losses, high isolation, a switching time below 0.1μs, an operation voltage below 30V and high power handling capabilities.




Carbon nanostructures based RF nanopackaging. Application to 3D interconnect

D. Baillargeat1; S. Bila1; P. Coquet2; B.K. Tay2,3; 1XLIM UMR 7252 CNRS/University of Limoges, 2CINTRA UMI 3288 CNRS/NTU/Thales, Singapore, 3SEEE NTU, Singapore

Assembly approaches are moving toward the system-level integration paradigm and new packaging technologies are proposed such as 3D system integration, wafer-level packaging, or electro/optical integration. During the last past years, new approaches have been studied. They consist in the use of new nanomaterials in packaging such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), nanowires, nanoparticules and graphene.
In this work, we mainly focus on the use of CNTs applied to high frequency interconnect. They are studied and revealed unique physical, electrical and thermal properties, which make them extremely attractive for many applications in the area of nanoelectronics.
In order to help component design, two modeling approaches are proposed: one is based on mesoscopic model for the electromagnetic properties of arrays of nanotubes, the other one on circuit simulation for RF applications. All of them are considering the quantum effects of the CNTs.
Several test structures are considered such as flip-chip report based on CNTs bumps and wireless interconnect based on CNTs monopole. Experimental works are conducted with success. They validate theoretical approaches and specific processes.




Advanced numerical tools for the multiscale-multiphyiscs modelling of carbon-based interconnections

L. Pierantoni1; D. Mencarelli1; F. Coccetti2; 1Università Polietcnica delle Marche, 2LAAS-CNRS France

Full-wave multiphysics techniques aimed at the investigation of the combined electromagnetic-coherent transport phenomena in carbon-based nano-structures/devices have been recently introduced. The quantum transport is modeled by i) discrete Hamiltonians at atomistic scale, ii) Schrödinger equation, and/or Dirac/Dirac-like eqs. at continuous level. In this work, we will analyze: i) electromagnetic-quantum transport modelling and simulation of CNTs interconnections with TS , providing RF equivalent circuits, ii) many-terminal graphene nanoribbon (GNR) circuits, Y- and T- GNR junctions. Moroever, a new interconnection concept is presented. This consists of a resonating wire antenna, radiating very closely to a graphene patch, thus inducing plasmon propagation. In particular, we consider a suspended graphene structure, in order to i) emphasize the intrinsic properties of the material, ii) the changes of propagation characteristics due to a dielectric substrate. The numerical computation is achieved by means of a dedicated MoM technique, and, for comparison, is tentatively addressed by standard full-wave simulators. The proposed configuration is not much dissimilar to use an STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscopy) probe for near field microwave microscopy: in fact, the STM tip can be modeled by a filiform antenna protruding, for instance, from a coaxial feed.




Session: WSI

MmW to THz, which Applications with which Technology


Didier Belot, CEA Leti


Pierre Busson, ST Microelectronics


Millimeter Waves applications are becoming more and more used for civil markets in the infrastructures, automotive, mobile devices connectivity, and imaging domains while THz applications remain manly in the military domain, even if we can notice tentative for civil security and health imaging domain. The Workshop is organized in three levels of complexity: in a first time in order to target applications mentioned above, process technologies has to be defined, and we will have presentations covering SiGe and III-V processes; then we will address modeling issues for millimeter waves and THz frequencies, before having an overview on different design techniques in SiGe and III-V processes addressing mmW and THz applications. At the end of the day, we will have an open door on industrial systems and applications opportunities in Telecommunications infrastructures, mobile devices and connectivity. 




SiGe Technologies for mmW and THz applications

Pascal Chevalier; ST Microelectronics

SiGe BiCMOS technologies in production today address applications such as 77 GHz automotive radar or 100 Gb/s optical communications. They exhibit ~200 GHz fT / ~300 GHz fMAX SiGe HBTs, high-Q millimeter-wave passives and 0.18-µm to 0.13-µm CMOS. Next generations in development today offer SiGe HBTs featuring ~300 GHz fT and fMAX up to 500 GHz, embedded in 55-nm CMOS for the most advanced one. They will improve the performance of current applications but will also pave the way for new low-cost applications above 100 GHz. The talk will review the BiCMOS developments carried out in STMicroelectronics. The vertical and the lateral scaling of the SiGe HBT will be discussed and the outcome of these studies, with respect to the HF performances (fT, fMAX, noise, power), will be presented. Last 0.13-µm and 55-nm BiCMOS platforms (respectively BiCMOS9MW and BiCMOS055) from STMicroelectronics will be presented.




III-V Technologies for mmW and THz applications

Mohamed Zaknoune; IEMN Lille, France

The increasing demand in the market in terms of data rate, speed, mobile devices has created a competition between device technologies. The demand in terms of low noise amplification, power amplification and power generation in the millimeter and sub-millimeter waves range i.e. 100 GHz−1THz is becoming more and more crucial. For these very high frequency applications, III-V transistors such as the Double Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (DHBT) and the High Electron mobility Transistor (HEMT) or THz photomixer such as Uni-Traveling-Carrier-Photodiode (UTC) are the inevitable devices. During this last decade, immense efforts have been undertaken to push their performances at the limit, and sometimes beyond, of the THz. It will be shown in which ways these performances have been obtained on III-V semiconductors. These different ways include epitaxial design, scaling, interfaces, ohmic contacts.




RF front-ends for mm-Wave and THz application in SiGe/CMOS

Ulrich Pfeiffer; University of Wuppertal

This workshop will present an overview of silicon-based RF front- ends for imaging, radar, and communication applications operating close to and beyond the THz-gap. The presentation will focus on heterodyne and direct detection techniques including a discussion about the available device technologies and the achievable bandwidth and sensitivity. Heterodyne examples include wideband IQ transmitter and receiver front-ends at 240 GHz for data transmission towards 100 Gbit/s, a circular polarized radar transceiver chip at 240 GHz with a range resolution of 3.65 mm, and a THz multi-color imager up to 1 THz. Finally, incoherent SiGe sources with 0dBm up to 1/2 THz and THz video cameras in CMOS and SiGe process technologies operating up to 4THz are discussed.




Multifunctional Circuits and Modules Based on III/V mHEMT Technology for (Sub-)Millimeter-Wave Applications in Space, Communication and Sensing

Michael Schlechtweg; Fraunhofer Institute

The transmission of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere features local maxima in the distinguished frequency bands around 94, 140, 220, 340, 410, 480, 660, and 850 GHz, making them especially attractive for millimeter-wave high-speed data links and long-distance high-resolution radar and imaging systems. High operating frequencies allow for precise geometrical resolution due to high absolute bandwidth and small wavelength. It also reduces the size of components and antennas, predestining them for lightweight airborne systems, e.g. in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). In comparison to visible and infrared radiation, a particular benefit of millimeter-waves for imaging and sensing applications is the penetration of dust, fog, rain, snow, and textiles.
The workshop presentation covers a broad variety of MMICs and modules developed at the Fraunhofer IAF for manifold applications in the frequency range up to 600 GHz and above, using the advanced metamorphic high electron mobility transistor (mHEMT) technology based on the InGaAs/InAlAs material system on 4" GaAs substrates. To achieve very high MMIC operating frequencies, the transit frequency of transistors was boosted to over 600 GHz by increasing the indium content in the transistor channel up to 100 % and reducing the gate length to 20 nm. The presented MMICs act as key components in wireless communication systems (radio links, mobile communication, satellite transmission), sensor systems (collision avoidance radar, atmospheric sensors, non-destructive materials testing), radio astronomic sensors (cryogenic ultra-low-noise amplifiers), and in military engineering (high-resolution radar, passive imaging of the environment).
The presentation will specifically address a variety of high-performance MMICs, such as ultra-low-noise amplifiers mixers, oscillators, switches, frequency dividers, frequency multipliers, transmitters, receivers, as well as complete transmit/receive and radar circuits. Different approaches for module packaging and system realization will be also covered. As an example, multifunctional transmitter and receiver chip sets for millimeter-wave high-speed data links and active imaging systems up to 350 GHz will be discussed.




Towards the integration of millimeter wave access points in future 5G heterogeneous networks: stakes, challenges, and key enabling technologies

Cedric Dehos; CEA Leti

 The exponential increase of mobile data traffic, driven by smartphone and tablets, requires disrupting approaches in the definition of the future 5G network. The trend is to reduce the cell size and offload a great part of this traffic to small cell access points, optically or wirelessly linked together and backhauled to the core network. In this scope the huge frequency bands available at millimeter wave should be good candidates for opportunistic high data rate data transfer.
Within this talk, an heterogeneous network infrastructure is proposed based on the superimposing of millimeter wave access point and backhaul to the former cellular infrastructure. The latest breakthrough in CMOS and BiCMOS technologies and in industrial packaging are pointed out as starting point for the system definition and feasibility study of such mmw devices at low cost. A focus is next made on the access point architecture and design, through the framework of the H2020 Miwaves project. At least the technical, sociological, and economical challenge of such a mmw deployment is also emphasized and tackled.




Indoor WiGig and WiFi Convergence applications

Ali Sadri; Reza Arefi; Joongheon Kim;Intel

Increasing the capacity of cellular networks is becoming one of the most challenging tasks of the mobile industry this decade. As traditional mechanisms to increase spectral efficiency approach their theoretical limits, new and disruptive techniques are needed to satisfy the growing demand of mobile data traffic. While considerable focus has been rightfully put into exploiting licensed frequency bands below 6 GHz, the vast amount of licensed frequency spectrum in millimeter wave (mmWave) bands has seen little use by cellular systems despite holding far greater potential for enhancing capacity. Besides mobile cellular access, backhaul access technologies actively utilize mmWave frequency bands to satisfy multi-gigabit/s data rate requirements. In this paper we introduce our novel architecture for mmWave capable mobile cellular and backhaul access technologies with modular antenna arrays. This architecture makes use of various network RF components including combined with the use of mmWave based technologies for the backhaul, fronthaul and mobile cellular access. We show that our mmWave RF systems can significantly increase capacity and density for next generation backhaul and mobile cellular access systems.




Silicon mmW and THz Applications

Ali Hajimiri; CalTech

Over the last decade, there has been an explosion of newly reported result in the areas of integrated mm-wave and THz signal generation and detection. These new frequencies of operation enable a large number of new applications and architectures. In this talk, we will focus on several newly enable solution to such system, such as novel on-chip multi-port driven radiators, dynamic polarization control of the radiated signals, and integrated electro-optical signal generation solutions. We will discuss the underlying theme behind all these approaches and the future potential of such systems through several practical examples.




Coherent THz frequency synthesis in Silicon technologies: design challenges and impacts.

Alexandre Siligaris; CEA Leti

Sub-mmW frequency band is gaining an increased interest among the scientific community for RF system development. Indeed, within the J-band (220-325 GHz) a large spectrum is available where various applications are developed like short range radar, THz imaging, chip-to-chip high throughput communications or backhaul communications. Such systems are mostly based on heterodyne or super-heterodyne architecture in which a stable and low phase-noise local oscillator must provide a reference frequency for up and down conversion. Lots of work has been recently published on local oscillators operating around 300 GHz. However, either the oscillators are not included in PLLs, or their PLLs operate at high frequency, which is constraining in terms of design, performance and power consumption.
Here we present some architecture and design approaches that help to implement very high frequency synthesizers with low phase noise and optimal power consumption in Silicon technologies. The design challenges are identified and treated. Some examples of implemented circuits are detailed and the impact of phase noise is shown on THz images performed with heterodyne receivers.




Session: WSJ

Modern radar systems for high resolution ranging, indoor localization, and vital signs detection


Aly E. Fathy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville 


Jenshan Lin, University of Florida 


In recent few years, radar has evolved from an important military utility to popular solution for automobile collision avoidance, indoor localization, noncontact health monitoring, and motion detection/control. Both the industry and academia are working diligently in making radar portable intelligent devices for civilian applications closely related to human life. This workshop presents some of the recent developments on ultra-wideband (UWB), Doppler, frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW), and injection-locking radars for biomedical and localization applications. The technologies presented operate in a broad frequency range from a few hundreds of MHz